Learn More
The seven-subunit Arp2/3 complex choreographs the formation of branched actin networks at the leading edge of migrating cells. When activated by Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp), the Arp2/3 complex initiates actin filament branches from the sides of existing filaments. Electron cryomicroscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of Acanthamoeba(More)
The heterotrimeric Sec61p complex is a major component of the protein-conducting channel of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, associating with either ribosomes or the Sec62/63 complex to perform co- and posttranslational transport, respectively. We show by electron microscopy that purified mammalian and yeast Sec61p complexes in detergent form(More)
The Arp2/3 complex nucleates the formation of the dendritic actin network at the leading edge of motile cells, but it is still unclear if the Arp2/3 complex plays a critical role in lamellipodia protrusion and cell motility. Here, we differentiated motile fibroblast cells from isogenic mouse embryonic stem cells with or without disruption of the ARPC3 gene,(More)
BACKGROUND Osteoclasts are bone-degrading cells, which play a central role in physiological bone remodeling. Unbalanced osteoclast activity is largely responsible for pathological conditions such as osteoporosis. Osteoclasts develop specialized adhesion structures, the so-called podosomes, which subsequently undergo dramatic reorganization into sealing(More)
he actin cytoskeleton is locally regulated for functional specializations for cell motility. Using quantitative fluorescent speckle microscopy (qFSM) of migrating epithelial cells, we previously defined two distinct F-actin networks based on their F-actin–binding proteins and distinct patterns of F-actin turnover and movement. The lamellipodium consists of(More)
Cellular mechanisms underlying the development of left-right asymmetry in tissues and embryos remain obscure. Here, the development of a chiral pattern of actomyosin was revealed by studying actin cytoskeleton self-organization in cells with isotropic circular shape. A radially symmetrical system of actin bundles consisting of α-actinin-enriched radial(More)
The actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex mediates the formation of branched actin filaments at the leading edge of motile cells and in the comet tails moving certain intracellular pathogens. Crystal structures of the Arp2/3 complex are available, but the architecture of the junction formed by the Arp2/3 complex at the base of the branch was not known.(More)
Protrusion of the leading edge of migrating epithelial cells requires precise regulation of two actin filament (F-actin) networks, the lamellipodium and the lamella. Cofilin is a downstream target of Rho GTPase signaling that promotes F-actin cycling through its F-actin-nucleating, -severing, and -depolymerizing activity. However, its function in modulating(More)
Actin branch junctions are conserved cytoskeletal elements critical for the generation of protrusive force during actin polymerization-driven cellular motility. Assembly of actin branch junctions requires the Arp2/3 complex, upon activation, to initiate a new actin (daughter) filament branch from the side of an existing (mother) filament, leading to the(More)
The processive motor myosin V has a relatively high affinity for actin in the presence of ATP and, thus, offers the unique opportunity to visualize some of the weaker, hitherto inaccessible, actin bound states of the ATPase cycle. Here, electron cryomicroscopy together with computer-based docking of crystal structures into three-dimensional (3D)(More)