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Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are linked to motor neuron death in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by an unclear mechanism, although misfolded SOD1 aggregates are commonly associated with disease. Proteomic analysis of the transgenic SOD1(G93A) ALS rat model revealed significant up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum(More)
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is induced at symptom onset and disease end stage in rodent models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) that express superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mutations. However, ninety percent of human ALS is sporadic and mutations in SOD1 account for only 2% of total ALS. Here we show that a full UPR, including induction(More)
Parkinson's disease is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Symptoms do not appear until most nigral neurons are lost, implying that compensatory mechanisms are present. Sprouting has been proposed as one of these mechanisms. This study quantified the extent of compensatory axonal sprouting(More)
Failed storage capacity, leading to pulsatile delivery of dopamine (DA) in the striatum, is used to explain the emergence of 'wearing off' and dyskinaesia in Parkinson's disease. In this study, we show that surviving DA neurons in 6-OHDA lesioned rats sprout to re-innervate the striatum, and maintain terminal density until approximately 60% of neurons are(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). It is widely believed that replacing lost SNc DA neurons is a key to longer-term effective treatment of PD motor symptoms, but generating new SNc DA neurons in PD patients has proven difficult. Following loss of tyrosine(More)
Human neural precursors (hNP) derived from embryonic stem cells (hESC) may provide a viable cellular source for transplantation therapy for Huntington's disease (HD). However, developing effective transplantation therapy for the central nervous system (CNS) using hESC relies on optimizing the in vitro production of hNP to control appropriate in vivo(More)
The catechol and indole pathways are important components underlying plasticity in the frontal cortex and basal ganglia. This study demonstrates that administering rats either cocaine or a selective serotonin (or 5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) for 16 weeks results in reduced density of dopaminergic and noradrenergic terminals in the(More)
Inflammation is believed to play an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, experimental and epidemiological evidences from various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, seem contradictive. Using the intranigral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) rat model, we show that(More)
Current neurosurgical strategies target overactive brain regions including the subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus and thalamus to control various symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Subthalamotomy improves akinesia and can induce postural deficits in both parkinsonian humans and animals, pallidotomy improves limb dyskinesia and more variably, distal(More)
BACKGROUND Recent evidence indicates that hypothalamic neurons acquire or lose the capacity to synthesize and release dopamine (DA) in response to environmental stimuli, and this has functional and behavioral consequences for adult rats. We have evidence that neuronal activity, including that driven by afferent input, regulates acquisition and loss of the(More)