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Cytokines are multifunctional mediators that classically modulate immune activity by receptor-mediated pathways. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine that has a critical role in several inflammatory conditions but that also has endocrine and enzymatic functions. The molecular targets of MIF action have so far remained unclear. Here we(More)
The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) exhibits pro- and anti-inflammatory activities and regulates cell proliferation and survival. We investigated the effects of MIF on apoptosis. As MIF exhibits oxidoreductase activity and participates in regulating oxidative cell stress, we studied whether MIF could affect oxidative stress-induced(More)
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory response of the arterial wall to "injury", which is prominently driven by cytokines. The inflammatory mediator macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a unique cytokine that was recently associated with atherogenesis. Here, we have investigated whether MIF has a role in spontaneous atherosclerosis by studying(More)
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) binds to c-Jun activation domain binding protein-1 (JAB1)/subunit 5 of COP9 signalosome (CSN5) and modulates cell signaling and the cell cycle through JAB1. The binding domain of JAB1 responsible for binding to MIF is unknown. We hypothesized that the conserved Mpr1p Pad1p N-terminal (MPN) domain of JAB1 may(More)
The pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system are the first defence line of the immune system. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the most well known and the best examined of the PR receptors. In the last years TLRs had been studied in different ways resulting in a lot of new insights in the function and signalling pathways of these(More)
Novel nontoxic (S)-2-aminoalkylbenzimidazole derivatives were found to be effective against Candida spp. at low micromolar concentrations using high-throughput screening with infected HeLa cells. A collection of analogues defined the chemical groups relevant for activity. The most active compound was characterized by transcriptional analysis of the response(More)
Fungal infections are a serious health problem in clinics, especially in the immune-compromised patient. Disease ranges from widespread superficial infections like vulvovaginal infections to life-threatening systemic candidiasis. Especially for systemic mycoses, only a limited arsenal of antifungals is available. The most commonly used classes of antifungal(More)
The fungal pathogen Candida albicans colonizes basically all human epithelial surfaces including the skin. Under certain conditions, such as immunosuppression, invasion of the epithelia occurs. Not much is known about defense mechanisms against C. albicans in subepithelial layers such as the dermis. Using immune cell-supplemented 3D skin models we could(More)
A comparative study concerning the physicochemical, monomeric composition and biological characters among different fucoidan fractions is presented. Common purification techniques for fucoidan usually involve many steps. During these steps, the important structural features might be affected and consequently alter its biological activities. Three purified(More)
Advances in the understanding of the infection and reactivation process of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) are generally gained by monolayer cultures or extensive and cost-intensive animal models. So far, no reliable in vitro skin model exists either to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in controlling latency and virus reactivation or to test(More)