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Respiratory viruses were identified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in more than 4,200 specimens collected during 2002 and 2003 in Victoria, Australia from patients admitted to hospitals or participating in an influenza surveillance program. Influenza viruses and picornaviruses were important causes of morbidity in both years. Additional testing of(More)
Nineteen distinct measles virus (MV) strains associated with nine different genotypes were identified in five Australian states (Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia) between 1999 and 2001. One of the strains identified is likely to represent a new genotype within the clade D viruses (proposed to be d9). No(More)
We characterised the antiviral phenotype and genotype of 41 herpes simplex virus (HSV) strains from patients clinically resistant to acyclovir (ACV). Our results confirm recognised mutational sites as being major determinants of thymidine kinase (tk)-associated ACV resistance, in particular insertions and/or deletions at homopolymer stretches of Gs and Cs(More)
Measles outbreaks in 1999 in Queensland and Victoria, Australia, were caused by a novel strain of clade G virus (proposed name g3). Epidemiologic and molecular evidence supports independent circulation of this virus in Queensland, northern Australia, in addition to importation of the virus by East Timor refugees seeking safe haven in Australia.
Characterization of HIV subtypes can provide a more comprehensive understanding of the epidemic within a distinct region, and when combined with notification data, may also be helpful in enhancing current HIV prevention strategies. In this study, we characterized 1056 HIV-positive individuals (948 males and 108 females) living in Victoria and whose(More)
Given the potential for laboratory-associated severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infections, we must know which cell lines are susceptible to the virus. We investigated 21 cell lines routinely used for virus isolation or research. After infection with SARS-CoV, cells were observed for cytopathic effects, and quantitative(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the nature of transmission links existing between patients recently infected with HIV strains containing transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutations. METHODS Virus from 63 individuals recently infected with HIV-1 containing TDR mutations was analyzed phylogenetically to determine virological links. Phylogenetic trees were(More)
At various times postonset of rash, 74 patients positive for measles virus-specific immunoglobulin M provided samples for detection of measles virus RNA by a reverse transcriptase PCR. Of lymphocytes, urine, throat swab, and serum specimens, throat swab specimens were optimal for detection of measles virus RNA during the first 2 weeks after the rash.
Genotyping by VP1 fragment polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleic acid sequencing to detect enterovirus (EV) genotypes was performed directly on 729 EV PCR positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected between 2007 and 2012 from Victorian hospital inpatients. The overall genotype identification rate from CSF-positive material was 43%. The four(More)
We investigated two cases of alleged criminal transmission of HIV-1 using Bayesian and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic approaches to determine whether the inference method used influenced the outcome in these cases. In the first case, Bayesian methods were used to reexamine gag and env sequences from an earlier investigation in which the HIV-1 strains(More)