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The Internet topological connectivity becomes denser over time. However the de facto routing protocol of the global Internet, BGP, lets each BGP router select and propagate only a single best path to each destination network. This leads to a common concern that the rich connectivity is not fully utilized and the lack of alternative paths can reduce a(More)
—Large ISPs have been growing rapidly in both the size and global connectivity. To scale with the sheer number of routers, many providers have replaced the flat full-mesh iBGP connectivity with a hierarchical architecture, using either Route-Reflection (RR) or AS confederation. Given that each intermediate iBGP router in the hierarchy selects and propagates(More)
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