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Cell growth is promoted by mitogens and survival factors, which activate intracellular signalling pathways to control cell cycle progression and cellular integrity. Proliferation signals are transmitted through Ras and Rho family small G-proteins coupled to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, while survival signals are propagated by(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa releases a spectrum of well-regulated virulence factors, controlled by intercellular communication (quorum sensing) and mediated through the production of small diffusible quorum-sensing signal molecules (QSSM). We hypothesize that QSSM may in fact serve a dual purpose, also allowing bacterial colonization via their intrinsic(More)
Data from epidemiologic studies suggest that hookworm infections, in establishing an immunologic phenotype conducive to parasite survival, may protect against the development of allergic disease. We describe immunologic findings from a clinical study designed to investigate the safety of iatrogenic hookworm infection in participants with allergic rhinitis.(More)
Comparative immune modulatory activity for a range of synthetic analogues of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa signal molecule, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3O, C(12)-HSL), is described. Twenty-four single or combination systematic alterations of the structural components of 3O, C(12)-HSL were introduced as described. Given the already defined(More)
A popular hypothesis to explain parasite survival in the presence of a pronounced T helper 2 phenotype in helminth-parasitized populations has been Fc epsilonRI blockade by parasite-induced polyclonal IgE. To begin to test the hypothesis that Fc epsilonRI-bearing cells would be refractory to activation in parasitized populations, we investigated basophil(More)
BACKGROUND Parasitic worms induce a strong, polarized T(H)2-type immune response. The kinetics of gastrointestinal nematode-induced T(H)2-type responses, especially in the context of primary infection, have been extensively studied in experimental infection models but not in human subjects. OBJECTIVE We sought to determine the kinetics of basophil(More)
The Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (1) is involved not only in bacterial activation but also in subversion of the host immune system, and this compound might thus be used as a template to design immunosuppressive agents, provided derivatives devoid of quorum-sensing activity could be discovered. By(More)
Patent and pathologic infections of the human hookworm Necator americanus were established in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In a pilot study, a laboratory strain of N. americanus was compared with a fresh field isolate. Pathology was more severe in animals infected with a fresh isolate. In all animals, infection was associated with increased(More)
Immune regulation, either via the autonomic nervous system or by a proposed "non-neuronal" cholinergic system, suggests that the immune system may be susceptible to perturbation by compounds affecting cholinergic function. Here, the current UK and US nerve agent pre-treatment, pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and the related anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE)(More)
Balb/c mice treated with an immunotoxin constructed by conjugation of murine monoclonal antibody 791T/36 via a disulfide linker to ricin A chain generate a pronounced antibody response to peptide epitopes on ricin A chain. Monoclonal anti-RTA antibodies which recognize peptide epitopes have been developed and these have been used to down-regulate anti-RTA(More)