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In this study, we investigated the effect of astaxanthin on IL-6 in activated microglial cells because excessive interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by activated brain microglia has been linked to many neurological disorders and proper regulation of IL-6 is critical for maintaining brain homeostasis. Astaxanthin inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated(More)
A novel hemorrhagic metalloprotease, halysase, isolated from the snake venom of Gloydius halys induces apoptosis in endothelial cells. The purified metalloprotease is a monomeric glycoprotein with an isoelectric point of 4.8. Analysis of the cDNA sequence encoding halysase revealed that the enzyme consists of multifunctional domains including a proprotein(More)
BACKGROUND Application of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) currents to the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) has been reported to produce relief from certain pain states without causing thermal ablation. In this study, we examined the direct correlation between PRF application to DRG associated with spinal nerve injury and reversal of injury-induced behavioral(More)
Nerve injury-induced expression of the spinal calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 subunit (Cavalpha2delta1) has been shown to mediate behavioral hypersensitivity through a yet identified mechanism. We examined if this neuroplasticity modulates behavioral hypersensitivity by regulating spinal glutamatergic neurotransmission in injury-free transgenic mice(More)
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a pivotal role in the turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) and in the migration of normal and tumor cells in response to normal physiologic and numerous pathologic conditions. Here, we show that the transcription of the MMP-9 gene is induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in cells of a macrophage lineage(More)
The cytomegalovirus immediate-early (CMV IE) gene enhancer/promoter regulates the expression of immediate-early gene products and initiation of CMV replication. TNF-alpha and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) strongly activate the promoter, possibly involving NF-kappaB. CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs), which contain unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in the context(More)
A novel disintegrin, saxatilin, was purified from Korean snake (Gloydius saxatilis) venom by means of chromatographic fractionations. We have also isolated the cDNA encoding the disintegrin using cDNA library of the snake venom gland and analyzed its complete nucleotide sequence. Saxatilin is a single-chain polypeptide composed of 73 amino acids including(More)
1 To whom correspondence should be addressed: Yeon Hyang Kim, PhD, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Korea. Tel.: 82-2-3132878; Fax: 82-2-312-6027; E-mail: yeonhkim@yonsei.ac.kr. Doo-Sik Kim, PhD, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University,(More)
Human securin, known also as PTTG, has established oncogenic and cell cycle regulatory functions. PTTG/securin transforms cells in vitro, inhibits sister chromatid separation, and regulates secretion of fibroblast growth factor-2. FGF-2 is a key regulator of CNS development and PTTG/securin expression has been reported in murine fetal brain. We examined the(More)
We have investigated the inhibitory effect of salmosin on integrin-mediated human tumour cell proliferation. SK-Mel-2 human melanoma cell adhesion to denatured collagen or vitronectin was found to be significantly and statistically inhibited by salmosin in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Moreover, the binding of SK-Mel-2 cells to salmosin-coated plates(More)