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Increasing mortality in intravenous (IV) drug users not reported to surveillance as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has occurred in New York City coincident with the AIDS epidemic. From 1981 to 1986, narcotics-related deaths increased on average 32% per year from 492 in 1981 to 1996 in 1986. This increase included deaths from AIDS increasing from(More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to estimate HIV incidence among injection drug users (IDUs) in New York City from 1990 to 2002 to assess the impact of an expansion of syringe exchange services. Syringe exchange increased greatly during this period, from 250,000 to 3,000,000 syringes exchanged annually. METHODS Serum samples were obtained from serial cross-sectional(More)
The study objective was to obtain preliminary information regarding the safety and efficacy of amphotericin B (AmB) lipid complex (ABLC) in the treatment of AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. Of 55 patients randomly assigned to 6 weeks of therapy with ABLC (1.2-5.0 mg/[kg.d], with ascending doses for three sequential cohorts) or AmB (0.7-1.2(More)
Anemia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients can have serious implications, which vary from functional and quality-of-life decrements to an association with disease progression and decreased survival. In 2002, 16 members of the Anemia in HIV Working Group, an expert panel of physicians involved in the care of HIV-infected patients that met(More)
Central-nervous-system toxoplasmosis developed in 7 of 269 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome reported to the New York City Health Department through July 1982. Focal neurologic abnormalities, mass lesions on computed-tomographic brain scans, lymphocytic cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, and detectable IgG antibody to Toxoplasma gondii were(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine trends in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk behavior and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs) in New York City from 1984 through 1992. DESIGN AND SETTING Comparisons were made between two surveys of IDUs at the same hospital-based New York City drug abuse detoxification(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess trends in HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV/HCV infection among injecting drug users (IDU) from 1990 to 2001 in New York City. The 1990-2001 time period included a very large expansion of syringe exchange in New York City, from 250,000 to 3,000,000 syringes exchanged annually. METHODS Cross-sectional seroprevalence surveys of IDU(More)
Intravenous drug users are the second largest group to develop the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and they are the primary source for heterosexual and perinatal transmission in the United States and Europe. Understanding long-term trends in the spread of human immunodeficiency virus among intravenous drug users is critical to controlling the acquired(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of nevirapine (NVP), a nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor of HIV-1 and P450 inducer, on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of ethinyl estradiol (EE)/norethindrone (NET), a widely used oral contraceptive, and to assess the effects of EE/NET on the steady-state PK of NVP. METHODS Ten HIV-1-infected women underwent(More)
A cohort of 334 intravenous (IV) drug users from New York City drug treatment programs were followed over a mean 9-month period. Among the 165 who were seropositive at enlistment, four developed clinical AIDS, for an annual rate of 3%. Elevated IgA was a significant predictor of developing AIDS. Among 72 subjects who were initially seronegative and who were(More)