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Increasing mortality in intravenous (IV) drug users not reported to surveillance as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has occurred in New York City coincident with the AIDS epidemic. From 1981 to 1986, narcotics-related deaths increased on average 32% per year from 492 in 1981 to 1996 in 1986. This increase included deaths from AIDS increasing from(More)
Manifestations of viral infections can differ between women and men, and marked sex differences have been described in the course of HIV-1 disease. HIV-1-infected women tend to have lower viral loads early in HIV-1 infection but progress faster to AIDS for a given viral load than men. Here we show substantial sex differences in the response of plasmacytoid(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral regimens with simplified dosing and better safety are needed to maximize the efficiency of antiretroviral delivery in resource-limited settings. We investigated the efficacy and safety of antiretroviral regimens with once-daily compared to twice-daily dosing in diverse areas of the world. METHODS AND FINDINGS 1,571 HIV-1-infected(More)
Intranasal transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) via contaminated drug-sniffing implements is a potential but unconfirmed source of viral infection. We demonstrate the virological plausibility of intranasal transmission by confirming that blood and HCV RNA are present in the nasal secretions and drug-sniffing implements of HCV-infected intranasal drug(More)
BACKGROUND The ability to control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication in vivo in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a measure of the efficiency of antiviral immunity. In a study of patients with chronic, ART-suppressed HIV infection, AIDS Clinical Trials Group 5068 investigated the effects of immunization with an exogenous HIV vaccine(More)
To improve evaluation of new antiretroviral drugs in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), sensitive biological markers that accurately predict response to treatment are needed. Two possible markers are endogenous interferon (E-IFN), which is a cytokine involved in the pathophysiology of AIDS, and serum triglycerides (TG), which are raised in(More)
Six patients (11 eyes) with virologically confirmed cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis involving the posterior pole of the eye were treated with a new drug, ganciclovir. Treatment with intravenous ganciclovir consistently halted progression of retinitis and produced improvement in measures of visual function. However, within three weeks after cessation of(More)
AIDS clinical trials (ACTs) are critical to the development of new treatments for HIV infection. However, people of color living with HIV/AIDS are involved in ACTs at disproportionally low rates, with African-Americans experiencing the greatest under-representation. In this article, we describe the core elements and key characteristics of a highly(More)
A substantial proportion of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) delay, decline, or discontinue antiretroviral therapy (ART) when it is medically indicated (40-45%), largely African-Americans and Latinos/Hispanics. This study explores the feasibility of locating PLHA, who are not on ART (PLHA-NOA) through clinics and peer-referral; compares the two cohorts(More)
42 homosexual or bisexual men with persistent generalised lymphadenopathy not attributable to an identifiable cause have been followed longitudinally since February, 1981. Lymphadenopathy was accompanied by fatigue, low-grade fever and/or night sweats (57%), splenomegaly (29%), leucopenia (40%), hypergamma - globulinaemia (76%), and diminished proportion(More)