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Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a putative morphogen secreted by the floor plate and notochord, which specifies the fate of multiple cell types in the ventral aspect of the vertebrate nervous system. Since in Drosophila the actions of Hh have been shown to be transduced by Cubitus interruptus (Ci), a zinc finger transcription factor, we examined whether a(More)
The effects of two amphetamine-like designer drugs, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), on dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in the rat brain were investigated and compared to those of methamphetamine (METH). Like METH, single or multiple 10 mg/kg doses of either drug caused marked reductions in both(More)
Similar to other amphetamine analogs 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy"), a currently popular illicit drug, has been characterized recently as a serotonergic neurotoxin due to its ability to cause long-lasting deficits in markers of central serotonergic function in animals. Because the serotonergic toxicity associated with the MDMA analog(More)
The effects of subcutaneous injection of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), a psychoactive amphetamine congener, on mouse central monoaminergic systems were assessed and compared to effects in rats. Whereas neostriatal concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in mouse were transiently decreased after a single moderately(More)
The activity of tryptophan hydroxylase (EC from rat brain was significantly decreased 1 h following a single systemic injection of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) when assessed ex vivo by radioenzymatic assay or in vivo by the quantitation of 5-hydroxytryptophan accumulation following central L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase(More)
In the rat, administration of the psychoactive analog of amphetamine 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), causes selective, pronounced decreases in markers of central serotonergic function. The time course of these neurochemical changes was examined in several serotonergic nerve terminal regions of the brain. Fifteen min after subcutaneous injection of(More)
Three psychoactive amphetamine congeners were evaluated for their ability to cause long-term changes in several neurochemical parameters indicative of central serotonergic function. Two weeks after multiple doses (10 mg/kg) of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) or its N-methylated derivative, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), selective and dramatic(More)
The prevention of the decrease in neostriatal tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activity with a single dose of methamphetamine (MA) was attempted by lesioning the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projections with bilateral nigral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). The rats were injected with MA (10 mg/kg) 11 days later, and killed 3 h after the injection. The(More)
The present study was carried out in order to explore the role of glucocorticoids in 3,4-methylenedio-xymethamphetamine (MDMA)-induced neurotoxicity of the central serotonergic system. The activity of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) was used as an index of this drug-induced neuronal degeneration. One week after a single high dose of MDMA (20 mg/kg), a(More)