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Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are taken by both sexes to enhance athletic performance and body image, nearly always in conjunction with an exercise regime. Although taken to improve physical attributes, chronic AAS use can promote negative behavior, including anxiety. Few studies have directly compared the impact of AAS use in males versus females or(More)
The new synthetic oleanane triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO) is a potent, multifunctional molecule. It induces monocytic differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cells and adipogenic differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and enhances the neuronal differentiation of rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells caused by nerve growth(More)
In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and(More)
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), synthetic testosterone derivatives that are used for ergogenic purposes, alter neurotransmission and behaviors mediated by GABA(A) receptors. Some of these effects may reflect direct and rapid action of these synthetic steroids at the receptor. The ability of other natural allosteric steroid modulators to alter GABA(A)(More)
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) comprise a large and growing class of synthetic androgens used clinically to promote tissue-building in individuals suffering from genetic disorders, injuries, and diseases. Despite these beneficial therapeutic applications, the predominant use of AAS is illicit: these steroids are self-administered to promote athletic(More)
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone originally developed for clinical purposes but are now predominantly taken at suprapharmacological levels as drugs of abuse. To date, almost 100 different AAS compounds that vary in metabolic fate and physiological effects have been designed and synthesised. Although they are(More)
A growing number of environmental toxicants found in pesticides, herbicides, and industrial solvents are believed to have deleterious effects on development by disrupting hormone-sensitive processes. We exposed Xenopus laevis embryos at early gastrula to the commonly encountered environmental estrogens nonylphenol, octylphenol, and methoxychlor, the(More)
Chronic exposure to anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has deleterious effects on reproductive health in both human and animal subjects. Neurotransmission mediated by the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor in the medial amygdala (MeA), the medial preoptic area (mPOA), and the ventromedial nucleus (VMN) of the hypothalamus plays a critical(More)
Illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has become a prevalent health concern not only among male professional athletes, but, disturbingly, among a growing number of women and adolescent girls. Despite the increasing use of AAS among women and adolescents, few studies have focused on the effects of these steroids in females, and female adolescent(More)
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone that are illicitly self-administered for enhancement of performance and body image, but which also have significant effects on the brain and on behavior. While the stereotypical AAS user is an adult male, AAS abuse in women is rapidly increasing, yet few studies have examined AAS(More)