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Growth of preimplantation embryos is influenced by autocrine trophic factors that need to act by the 2-cell stage, but their mode of action is not yet described. This report shows that late zygote and 2-cell stage mouse embryos responded to embryo-derived platelet-activating factor (PAF) with transient increases in intracellular calcium concentration(More)
The growth and survival of the preimplantation mammalian embryo may be regulated by several autocrine trophic factors that have redundant or overlapping actions. One of the earliest trophic factors to be produced is embryo-derived platelet-activating factor (1-O-alky-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphocholine). The addition of platelet-activating factor to(More)
PURPOSE To examine the effects of 24-h travel west across 11 time zones on subjective jet-lag and wellness responses together with self-reported sleep and upper respiratory symptoms in 18 professional rugby league players. METHODS Measures were obtained 1 or 2 d before (pretravel) and 2, 6, and 8 d after travel (post-2, post-6, and post-8) from Australia(More)
Amylose reacted in N,N-dimethylformamide with crystalline bromomethylenedimethylammonium bromide (Vilsmeier bromide) to give 6-bromo-6-deoxyamylose with a high degree of substitution. Reduction of the bromoamylose with sodium borohydride yielded 6-deoxyamylose that, following controlled acetolysis, gave 6-deoxymaltooligosaccharides. Such oligosaccharides,(More)
The functionality of casein that was precipitated by batch by a novel process using CO2 was investigated for solubility in water and NaCl, foam stability, overrun, emulsion activity index, and emulsion stability. These properties were compared with those of acidified casein and Na caseinate prepared in the laboratory, commercial acid casein, and commercial(More)
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