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Presenting a weak stimulus just before a strong, startle stimulus reduces the amplitude of the ensuing startle response in humans and other vertebrates. This phenomenon, termed "prepulse inhibition" (PPI), appears to function to reduce distraction while processing sensory input. To date, no detailed neural mechanism has been described for PPI. Here we(More)
In vitro slice preparations of CNS tissue are invaluable for studying neuronal function. However, up to now, slice protocols for adult mammal spinal motoneurons--the final common pathway for motor behaviors--have been available for only limited portions of the spinal cord. In most cases, these preparations have not been productive due to the poor viability(More)
In prepulse inhibition (PPI), startle responses to sudden, unexpected stimuli are markedly attenuated if immediately preceded by a weak stimulus of almost any modality. This experimental paradigm exposes a potent inhibitory process, present in nervous systems from invertebrates to humans, that is widely considered to play an important role in reducing(More)
Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that a single exposure to 100% carbon dioxide (CO2) can serve as an effective unconditioned stimulus (US) in a Pavlovian aversive-context conditioning paradigm in rats. Although the US exposure parameters employed in the initial studies were sufficient for producing a context-specific enhancement of behavioral(More)
When repeatedly elicited, the oscillatory escape swim of the marine mollusc Tritonia diomedea undergoes habituation of the number of cycles per swim. Previous work has shown that this habituation is accompanied by sensitization of another feature of the behavior: latency to swim onset. Here we focused on the behavioral features of sensitization itself. Test(More)
Four experiments were conducted to examine the utility of carbon dioxide (CO2) as an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) in a Pavlovian context conditioning paradigm. Experiment 1 demonstrated that rats exposed to CO2 in a distinctive context showed elevated levels of freezing relative to controls. Experiment 2 replicated this basic effect with a modified(More)
1. Previous studies have shown that morphine analgesia is enhanced when analgesia testing is conducted in an environment that has been previously paired with shock, but not in a novel or neutral environment. 2. Two experiments were conducted to assess if enhanced morphine analgesia could be demonstrated in a neutral context if rats were first exposed to(More)
A number of studies have reported that both the immediate and proactive effects of exposure to a shock stressor are less pronounced in female than in male rats. A separate area of research has demonstrated that female rats are less sensitive to the analgesic effects of morphine than males. Experiments from our laboratory, as well as others, have found that(More)
those papers emphasizing adaptive and integrative mechanisms. It is published 12 times a year (monthly) by the American publishes original papers that deal with diverse areas of research in applied physiology, especially
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