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Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) can mimic the biophysical effects of associative learning on neurons. Furthermore, classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane (a form of associative learning) produces translocation of PKC activity from the cytosolic to the membrane compartments of the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Evidence is provided(More)
Associative memory of the mollusc Hermissenda crassicornis, previously correlated with changes of specific K+ currents, protein phosphorylation, and increased synthesis of mRNA and specific proteins, is here shown to be accompanied by macroscopic alteration in the structure of a single identified neuron, the medial type B photoreceptor cell. Four to five(More)
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is cleaved by two enzymes, beta-secretase and gamma-secretase, to generate the pathological amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide. Expression of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) mutants of APP in primary neurons causes both intracellular accumulation of the C-terminal beta-secretase cleavage product of APP and increased(More)
The classic neuropathological diagnostic markers for AD are amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, but their role in the etiology and progression of the disease remains incompletely defined. Research over the last decade has revealed that cell cycle abnormalities also represent a major neuropathological feature of AD. These abnormalities appear very(More)
BACKGROUND The beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) is sequentially cleaved by the beta- and then gamma-secretase to generate the amyloid beta-peptides Abeta40 and Abeta42. Increased Abeta42/Abeta40 ratios trigger amyloid plaque formations in Alzheimer's disease (AD). APP binds to APP-BP1, but the biological consequence is not well understood. RESULTS We(More)
The molecular basis for the degeneration of neurons and the deposition of amyloid in plaques and in the cerebrovasculature in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is incompletely understood. We have proposed that one molecule common to these abnormal processes is a fragment of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) comprising the C-terminal 100 amino acids of(More)
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive decline of cognitive functions is accompanied by neuropathology that includes the degeneration of neurons and the deposition of amyloid in plaques and in the cerebrovasculature. We have proposed that a fragment of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) comprising the carboxyl-terminal 100 amino acids of this(More)
In this review, we argue that at least one insult that causes Alzheimer's disease (AD) is disruption of the normal function of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) mutations in APP cause a disease phenotype that is identical (with the exception that they cause an earlier onset of the disease) to that of 'sporadic' AD. This(More)
Apoptotic pathways and DNA synthesis are activated in neurons in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD). However, the signaling mechanisms that mediate these events have not been defined. We show that expression of familial AD (FAD) mutants of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) in primary neurons in culture causes apoptosis and DNA(More)
Postmortem, genetic, brain imaging, and peripheral cell studies all support decreased mitochondrial activity as a factor in the manifestation of Bipolar Disorder (BD). Because abnormal mitochondrial morphology is often linked to altered energy metabolism, we investigated whether changes in mitochondrial structure were present in brain and peripheral cells(More)