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PURPOSE Knowledge of tumor mutation status is becoming increasingly important for the treatment of cancer, as mutation-specific inhibitors are being developed for clinical use that target only sub-populations of patients with particular tumor genotypes. Melanoma provides a recent example of this paradigm. We report here development, validation, and(More)
Abnormal cellular metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, yet there is an absence of quantitative methods to dynamically image this powerful cellular function. Optical metabolic imaging (OMI) is a noninvasive, high-resolution, quantitative tool for monitoring cellular metabolism. OMI probes the fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of the autofluorescent(More)
The Rel/NF-kappaB family of transcription factors has been implicated in such diverse cellular processes as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. As each of these processes occurs during post-natal mammary gland morphogenesis, the expression and activity of NF-kappaB factors in the murine mammary gland were examined. Immunohistochemical and(More)
The genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of cancers can contribute to tumor aggressiveness, invasion, and resistance to therapy. Fluorescence imaging occupies a unique niche to investigate tumor heterogeneity due to its high resolution and molecular specificity. Here, heterogeneous populations are identified and quantified by combined optical metabolic(More)
Akt phosphorylation is a major driver of cell survival, motility, and proliferation in development and disease, causing increased interest in upstream regulators of Akt like mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). We used genetic disruption of Rictor to impair mTORC2 activity in mouse mammary epithelia, which decreased Akt phosphorylation, ductal length, secondary(More)
Photothermal OCT (PTOCT) provides high sensitivity to molecular targets in tissue, and occupies a spatial imaging regime that is attractive for small animal imaging. However, current implementations of PTOCT require extensive temporal sampling, resulting in slow frame rates and a large data burden that limit its in vivo utility. To address these(More)
ErbB3, a member of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is a potent activator of phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, driving tumor cell survival and therapeutic resistance in breast cancers. In luminal breast cancers, ErbB3 upregulation following treatment with the antiestrogen fulvestrant(More)
Fluorescence lifetime microscopy imaging (FLIM) is an optic technique that allows a quantitative characterization of the fluorescent components of a sample. However, for an accurate interpretation of FLIM, an initial processing step is required to deconvolve the instrument response of the system from the measured fluorescence decays. In this paper, we(More)
In the complex microenvironment where they evolve, developing cells undergo rapid programmed cell death (PCD) when cytokines that support them become limiting. The transcriptional mechanisms of cytokine-withdrawal apoptosis are poorly understood. In this report, we used early B-lymphocyte tissue culture and transgenic cells to demonstrate that nuclear(More)
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