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Extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds prepared from different tissue sources or using different methods have been demonstrated to have distinctive effects upon cell adhesion patterns and the ability to support and maintain differentiated phenotypes. It is unknown whether the molecular composition or the ultrastructure of the ECM plays a greater role in(More)
BACKGROUND Previous investigators have relied on administration of pro-inflammatory cytokines or invasive surgical procedures to reproduce the morphologic changes of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in rats. However, these artificial insults do not mimic the human disease. We developed a reproducible model of NEC in rats that more closely resembles human NEC(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is characterized by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) release and inadequate intestinal restitution. Because enterocytes migrate together, mucosal healing may require interenterocyte communication via connexin 43-mediated gap junctions. We hypothesize that enterocyte migration requires interenterocyte(More)
Autocrine and paracrine cell communication can be conveyed by multiple mediators, including membrane-associate proteins, secreted proteins and exosomes. Exosomes are 30-100 nm endosome-derived vesicles consisting in cytosolic material surrounded by a lipid bilayer containing transmembrane proteins. We have previously shown that dendritic cells (DCs) express(More)
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) develops in response to elevated TLR4 signaling in the newborn intestinal epithelium and is characterized by TLR4-mediated inhibition of enterocyte migration and reduced mucosal healing. The downstream processes by which TLR4 impairs mucosal healing remain incompletely understood. In other systems, TLR4 induces autophagy, an(More)
Hepatocytes were grown in chemically defined hepatocyte growth medium (HGM) containing hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) on collagen-coated polystyrene beads in roller bottle cultures, forming clusters of beads, and proliferating hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells, including fenestrated endothelium-forming vascular(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the existence of a pathway between intraluminal products and the muscularis leukocytic infiltrate. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Mild intestinal manipulation or lipopolysaccharide initiates an intense inflammatory response within the intestinal muscularis, resulting in paralytic ileus. A major potential morbidity factor in ileus is(More)
Eosinophils (Eos) are found at increased numbers within necrotic areas of tumors. We show that necrotic material from cell lysates containing damage-associated molecular pattern molecules induce eosinophil degranulation (release of major basic protein and eosinophil peroxidase) and enhance their oxidative burst while the stimulatory capacity of cell lysates(More)
Tumor-associated endothelial cells (TAECs) harboring various genomic abnormalities have been described in human cancers although their origins remain obscure. We generated 4 human cancer cell lines tagged with multiple markers, grew them as xenografts, and characterized their TAECs. Depending on their tumor of origin, 5-40% of TAECs reproducibly expressed(More)
Signals from stressed cells and the enteric microbiota activate macrophages and dendritic cells and mediate intestinal inflammation. HMGB1 serves as an immunogenic stimuli causing release of inflammatory cytokines by myeloid cells. Ethyl pyruvate inhibits secretion of HMGB1 and improves survival in models of endotoxemia and hemorrhagic shock. We reasoned(More)