Donna B Stolz

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Amniotic epithelial cells develop from the epiblast by 8 days after fertilization and before gastrulation, opening the possibility that they might maintain the plasticity of pregastrulation embryo cells. Here we show that amniotic epithelial cells isolated from human term placenta express surface markers normally present on embryonic stem and germ cells. In(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease characterized by abnormal cellular responses to cigarette smoke, resulting in tissue destruction and airflow limitation. Autophagy is a degradative process involving lysosomal turnover of cellular components, though its role in human diseases remains unclear. METHODOLOGY(More)
Two major protein degradation systems exist in cells, the ubiquitin proteasome system and the autophagy machinery. Here, we investigated the functional relationship of the two systems and the underlying mechanisms. Proteasome inhibition activated autophagy, suggesting that the two are functionally coupled. Autophagy played a compensatory role as suppression(More)
Ischemic tissues require mechanisms to alert the immune system of impending cell damage. The nuclear protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) can activate inflammatory pathways when released from ischemic cells. We elucidate the mechanism by which HMGB1, one of the key alarm molecules released during liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), is mobilized in(More)
CYR61 (CCN1) is a member of the CCN family of secreted matricellular proteins that includes connective tissue growth factor (CCN2), NOV (CCN3), WISP-1 (CCN4), WISP-2 (CCN5), and WISP-3 (CCN6). First identified as the product of a growth factor-inducible immediate-early gene, CYR61 is an extracellular matrix-associated angiogenic inducer that functions as a(More)
We have shown previously that single-walled carbon nanotubes can be catalytically biodegraded over several weeks by the plant-derived enzyme, horseradish peroxidase. However, whether peroxidase intermediates generated inside human cells or biofluids are involved in the biodegradation of carbon nanotubes has not been explored. Here, we show that hypochlorite(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Alcohol abuse is a major cause of liver injury. The pathologic features of alcoholic liver disease develop over prolonged periods, yet the cellular defense mechanisms against the detrimental effects of alcohol are not well understood. We investigated whether macroautophagy, an evolutionarily conserved cellular mechanism that is commonly(More)
The primary known function of phospholipase D (PLD) is to generate phosphatidic acid (PA) via the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine. However, the functional role of PA is not well understood. We report here evidence that links the activation of PLD by insulin and the subsequent generation of PA to the activation of the Raf-1-mitogen-activated protein kinase(More)
In vitro models of the liver using isolated primary hepatocytes have been used as screens for measuring the metabolism, toxicity and efficacy of xenobiotics, for studying hepatocyte proliferation, and as bioartificial liver support systems. Yet, primary isolated hepatocytes rapidly lose liver specific functions when maintained under standard in vitro cell(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent APCs. Whereas immature DCs down-regulate T-cell responses to induce/maintain immunologic tolerance, mature DCs promote immunity. To amplify their functions, DCs communicate with neighboring DCs through soluble mediators, cell-to-cell contact, and vesicle exchange. Transfer of nanovesicles (< 100 nm) derived from the(More)