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STUDY OBJECTIVES An ideal biomarker for sleep should change rapidly with sleep onset, remain at a detectably differential level throughout the sleep period, and exhibit a rapid change with waking. Currently, no molecular marker has been identified that exhibits all three properties. This study examined three substances (lactate, glucose, and glutamate) for(More)
We investigated the efficacy of applying a programme of multisensory stimulation to patients with severe diffuse traumatic brain injury, during their admission to a tertiary neurosurgical intensive care unit. We attempted to determine the nature and extent of any physiological or biochemical changes occurring as a result of the multisensory stimulation in(More)
For many years the notion that brain damage causes less impairment in children than in adults (sometimes known as the 'Kennard Principle') has enjoyed widespread support among scientists and clinicians. More recently neuroscientists have questioned the Principle, most now taking an opposing view that damage to the rapidly developing brain can be more(More)
A frequent consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant reduction in patients' cerebral activation/arousal, which clinicians agree is not conducive to optimal rehabilitation outcomes. In the context of paediatric rehabilitation, sustained periods of inactivity are particularly undesirable, as contemporary research has increasingly called(More)
The potential of virtual environments in assessment and training of cognitive function is a more than adequate reason for their application to neurorehabilitation. However, there is a more fundamental justification, and one which is firmly rooted in the neuroscience literature. Over the last half century there has been a wealth of published evidence that(More)
The Children's Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (CHIPASAT) was developed to assess the capacity and rate of information processing in children. This basic aspect of attention underlies many abilities, and is impaired following head injury in adults. Similar impairment may occur in children after head injury or other CNS dysfunction. A sample (N = 315) of(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and permanent disability in children and adolescents. Although cognitive and behavioural effects have now been reported for all degrees of TBI severity in children, other aspects of functioning which might be related (such as psychosocial adjustment), have been neglected. In the present study the(More)
The view that brain damage in children is less impairing than equivalent damage in adults is no longer acceptable. However, it is acknowledged that recovery following brain damage, when it does occur, owes much to the plasticity of the brain and that the young brain displays greater plasticity than the mature brain. To maximize brain damage recovery in(More)
Levels of urinary catecholamines (noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine), plasma acetylcholinesterase, serum serotonin and plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol were recorded in 38 adult subjects during the first 21 days after severe head injury. Levels of acetylcholinesterase, serotonin and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol differed significantly between(More)