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The NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) initiates a protein homeostatic pathway essential for cancer cell growth and survival. MLN4924 is a selective inhibitor of NAE currently in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. Here, we show that MLN4924 is a mechanism-based inhibitor of NAE and creates a covalent NEDD8-MLN4924 adduct catalyzed by the enzyme. The(More)
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is among the most common genetic disorders of humans and is caused by loss of neurofibromin, a large and highly conserved protein whose only known function is to serve as a GTPase-Activating Protein (GAP) for Ras. However, most Drosophila NF1 mutant phenotypes, including an overall growth deficiency, are not readily modified(More)
Pharmacodynamic responses to drug treatment are often used to confirm drug-on-target biological responses. Methods ranging from mass spectrometry to immunohistochemistry exist for such analyses. By far, the most extensively used methodologies employ antigen-specific antibodies for detection (at a minimum) and, in some cases, target quantitation as well.(More)
The utility of antibody reagents for the detection of specific cellular targets for both research and diagnostic applications is widespread and continually expanding. Often it is useful to develop specific antibodies as reagent pairs that distinguish different epitopes of the target such that sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay can be used for(More)
Ubiquitin activating enzyme (UAE, UBE1, or E1) and seven known homologous "E1s" initiate the conjugation pathways for ubiquitin and 16 other ubiquitin-like modifiers (ULMs) found in humans. The initial step catalyzed by E1s uses adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenylate the C terminus of the appropriate ULM and results in the production of inorganic(More)
A new technology from Quanterix called SiMoA (single molecule array) which employs a fully automated system capable of ultrasensitive sandwich based ELISA detection was explored. Our studies focused upon the inhibition of the autophagy initiating kinase ULK1 by measuring the both total Atg13 and the phosphorylation of Atg13(pSer(318)) from control and(More)
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