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—In the previous paper, we have proposed linguistic weighted average (LWA) algorithms that can be used in distributed and hierarchical decision making. The original LWA algorithms were completely based on the representation theorem for interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2 FSs). In later usage, we found that when the lower membership functions (LMFs) of the(More)
Keywords: Interval type-2 fuzzy sets Ranking methods Similarity measures Uncertainty measures Computing with words a b s t r a c t Ranking methods, similarity measures and uncertainty measures are very important concepts for interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2 FSs). So far, there is only one ranking method for such sets, whereas there are many similarity and(More)
The Karnik-Mendel (KM) algorithms are iterative procedures widely used in fuzzy logic theory. They are known to converge monotonically and super-exponentially fast; however, several (usually two to six) iterations are still needed before convergence occurs. Methods to reduce their computational cost are proposed in this paper. Extensive simulations show(More)
—The Karnik–Mendel (KM) algorithms are iterative procedures widely used in fuzzy logic theory. They are known to converge monotonically and superexponentially fast; however, several (usually two to six) iterations are still needed before convergence occurs. Methods to reduce their computational cost are proposed in this paper. Extensive simulations show(More)
A closed-loop system that offers real-time assessment and manipulation of a user's affective and cognitive states is very useful in developing adaptive environments which respond in a rational and strategic fashion to real-time changes in user affect, cognition, and motivation. The goal is to progress the user from suboptimal cognitive and affective states(More)
—The perceptual computer (Per-C) is an architecture that makes subjective judgments by computing with words (CWWs). This paper applies the Per-C to hierarchical decision making, which means decision making based on comparing the performance of competing alternatives, where each alternative is first evaluated based on hierarchical criteria and subcriteria,(More)
— A type-2 fuzzy set is characterized by a concept called footprint of uncertainty (FOU). It provides the extra mathematical dimension that equips type-2 fuzzy logic systems (FLSs) with the potential to outperform their type-1 counterparts. While a type-2 FLS has the capability to model more complex relationships, the output of a type-2 fuzzy inference(More)