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—In the previous paper, we have proposed linguistic weighted average (LWA) algorithms that can be used in distributed and hierarchical decision making. The original LWA algorithms were completely based on the representation theorem for interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2 FSs). In later usage, we found that when the lower membership functions (LMFs) of the(More)
Keywords: Interval type-2 fuzzy sets Ranking methods Similarity measures Uncertainty measures Computing with words a b s t r a c t Ranking methods, similarity measures and uncertainty measures are very important concepts for interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2 FSs). So far, there is only one ranking method for such sets, whereas there are many similarity and(More)
—A closed-loop system that offers real-time assessment and manipulation of a user's affective and cognitive states is very useful in developing adaptive environments which respond in a rational and strategic fashion to real-time changes in user affect, cognition, and motivation. The goal is to progress the user from suboptimal cognitive and affective states(More)
Fuzzy logic is frequently used in computing with words (CWW). When input words to a CWW engine are modeled by interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2 FSs), the CWW engine's output can also be an IT2 FS, e A, which needs to be mapped to a linguistic label so that it can be understood. Because each linguistic label is represented by an IT2 FS e B i , there is a need(More)
— The Karnik-Mendel (KM) algorithms are iterative procedures widely used in fuzzy logic theory. They are known to converge monotonically and super-exponentially fast; however, several (usually two to six) iterations are still needed before convergence occurs. Methods to reduce their computational cost are proposed in this paper. Extensive simulations show(More)
—The perceptual computer (Per-C) is an architecture that makes subjective judgments by computing with words (CWWs). This paper applies the Per-C to hierarchical decision making, which means decision making based on comparing the performance of competing alternatives, where each alternative is first evaluated based on hierarchical criteria and subcriteria,(More)
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Abstract—Construction of interval type-2 fuzzy set models is the first step in the Perceptual Computer, an implementation of Computing with Words. The Interval Approach (IA) has been so far the only(More)