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To help users find optimal rescue and evacuation routes, this approach uses the extended hierarchical node relation model (EHI-NRM) to represent a building's internal structure. The approach also employs the improved cellular-automata model (ICA) to consider route-choice behavior, such as spatial reasoning and communication among evacuees.
To evaluate and improve the quality of land surface albedo products, validation with ground measurements of albedo is crucial over the spatially and temporally heterogeneous land surface. One of the essential steps for satellite albedo product validation is coarse scale observation technique development with long time ground-based measurements. In this(More)
This paper describes progress in the ongoing effort to develop the Stochastic Coherent Adaptive Large Eddy Simulation (SCALES) methodology for modeling of inhomoge-neous turbulent flows. The SCALES approach has the potential for significant improvement over regular grid LES methodologies with its ability to resolve and dynamically track the most energetic(More)
Narrowband-to-broadband conversion is a critical procedure for mapping land-surface broadband albedo using multi-spectral narrowband remote-sensing observations. Due to the significant difference in optical characteristics between soil and vegetation, NTB conversion is influenced by the variation in vegetation coverage on different surface types. To reduce(More)