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The design of echo state network (ESN) parameters relies on the selection of the maximum eigenvalue of the linearized system around zero (spectral radius). However, this procedure does not quantify in a systematic manner the performance of the ESN in terms of approximation error. This article presents a functional space approximation framework to better(More)
High-frequency hearing is required for echolocating bats to locate, range and identify objects, yet little is known about its molecular basis. The discovery of a high-frequency hearing-related gene, KCNQ4, provides an opportunity to address this question. Here, we obtain the coding regions of KCNQ4 from 15 species of bats, including echolocating bats that(More)
In recent years, workflow technology has been widely used in business process management. With the increased complexity, uncertainty and risks in business operations, workflow monitoring is gaining growing attention in business process controlling and supervision. However, monitoring functions provided in traditional workflow systems lack flexibility, and(More)
With rising trading volumes and increasing risks in securities transactions, the securities industry is making an effort to shorten the trade lifecycle and minimize transaction risks. While attempting to achieve this, exception management is crucial to pass trade information within the trade lifecycle in a timely and accurate fashion. For a competitive(More)
This paper presents a theoretical approach to understand the basic dynamics of a hierarchical and realistic computational model of the olfactory system proposed by W. J. Freeman. While the system's parameter space could be scanned to obtain the desired dynamical behavior, our approach exploits the hierarchical organization and focuses on understanding the(More)
The Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) is one of the fastest growing areas in educational technology research and development. In order to achieve learning effectiveness, ideal VLEs should be able to identify learning needs and customize solutions, with or without an instructor to supplement instruction. They are called Personalized VLEs (PVLEs). In order(More)