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The design of echo state network (ESN) parameters relies on the selection of the maximum eigenvalue of the linearized system around zero (spectral radius). However, this procedure does not quantify in a systematic manner the performance of the ESN in terms of approximation error. This article presents a functional space approximation framework to better(More)
— This paper presents a direct adaptive approach to design controllers for nonlinear dynamical systems, where system identification of the unknown dynamical system is not required. The solution is powered by both echo state network (ESN) and genetic algorithm (GA). ESN enables a simple modeling of the controller, with which only a linear readout needs to be(More)
High-frequency hearing is required for echolocating bats to locate, range and identify objects, yet little is known about its molecular basis. The discovery of a high-frequency hearing-related gene, KCNQ4, provides an opportunity to address this question. Here, we obtain the coding regions of KCNQ4 from 15 species of bats, including echolocating bats that(More)
In recent years, workflow technology has been widely used in business process management. With the increased complexity, uncertainty and risks in business operations, workflow monitoring is gaining growing attention in business process controlling and supervision. However, monitoring functions provided in traditional workflow systems lack flexibility, and(More)
A new triterpenoid saponin was isolated from Pulsatilla cernua, along with eight known triterpenoids and triterpenoid glycosides. The new compound was identified as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-bayogenin-28-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1) on the basis of 1D, 2D-NMR(More)
Virtual learning environments (VLEs) are computer-based online learning environments, which provide opportunities for online learners to learn at the time and location of their choosing, whilst allowing interactions and encounters with other online learners, as well as affording access to a wide range of resources. They have the capability of reaching(More)
Criminal elements in today's technology-driven society are using every means available at their disposal to launder the proceeds from their illegal activities. In response, international anti-money laundering (AML) efforts are being made. The events of September 11, 2001, highlighted the need for more sophisticated AML and anti-terrorist financing programs(More)
The present design of echo state network (ESN) parameters relies on the selection of the maximum eigenvalue of the linearized system around zero. However , this has been found far from optimal for function approximation. This letter presents a function approximation perspective to better understand the operation of ESNs and proposes an information-theoretic(More)