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We report here the identification and characterization of a novel gene (AUTS2) that spans the 7q11.2 breakpoint in a monozygotic twin pair concordant for autism and a t(7;20) (q11.2; p11.2) translocation. AUTS2 is 1.2 Mb and has 19 exons. The predicted protein is 1295 amino acids and does not correspond to any known protein. DNA sequence analysis of autism(More)
In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), phytoene synthase-1 (PSY-1) is the key biosynthetic enzyme responsible for the synthesis of fruit carotenoids. To further our understanding of carotenoid formation in tomato fruit, we characterized the effect of constitutive expression of an additional tomato Psy-1 gene product. A quantitative data set defining levels of(More)
Cuticular waxes, forming the plant/atmosphere interface of plants colonizing the terrestrial environment, are complex mixtures of very-long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and their derivatives. In VLCFAs biosynthesis, β-ketoacyl CoA synthase (E.C.2.3.1.119, KCS) is the key enzyme. Using T-DNA insertional mutagenesis, we identified a cuticle-deficient rice(More)
One of the most challenging areas in human genetics is the dissection of quantitative traits. In this context, the efficient use of available data is important, including, when possible, use of large pedigrees and many markers for gene mapping. In addition, methods that jointly perform linkage analysis and estimation of the trait model are appealing because(More)
During protein synthesis, mRNA and tRNA are moved through the ribosome by the process of translocation. The small diameter of the mRNA entrance tunnel only permits unstructured mRNA to pass through. However, there are structured elements within mRNA that present a barrier for translocation that must be unwound. The ribosome has been shown to unwind RNA in(More)
Transport of many proteins to extracytoplasmic locations occurs via the general secretion (Sec) pathway. In Escherichia coli, this pathway is composed of the SecYEG protein-conducting channel and the SecA ATPase. SecA plays a central role in binding the signal peptide region of preproteins, directing preproteins to membrane-bound SecYEG and promoting(More)
Oligoribonuclease, an exoribonuclease specific for small oligoribonucleotides, was initially characterized 20 years ago (S. K. Niyogi and A. K. Datta, J. Biol. Chem. 250:7307-7312, 1975) and shown to be different from RNase II and polynucleotide phosphorylase. Here we demonstrate, using mutant strains and purified enzymes, that oligoribonuclease is not a(More)
Paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) is a powerful NMR technique that allows direct visualization of minor species. The PRE is obtained by conjugating a paramagnetic probe, such as EDTA-Mn(2+), at a specific cysteine residue. For a fast exchange between major and minor species, the observed PRE rate approaches population-weighted average of PRE values(More)
lambda Site-specific recombination requires a short stretch of sequence homology that might be sensed during strand swapping, during ligation and/or during isomerization of the obligate Holliday junction intermediate. Here, we use half-att site suicide substrates to study single and double top-strand-transfers, isolated from the subsequent steps of the(More)
The motor protein SecA is a core component of the bacterial general secretory (Sec) pathway and is essential for cell viability. Despite evidence showing that SecA exists in a dynamic monomer-dimer equilibrium favoring the dimeric form in solution and in the cytoplasm, there is considerable debate as to the quaternary structural organization of the SecA(More)