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A moderate drug permeating rate (flux) is desirable for long-acting transdermal patches. In this work, a novel simple method of controlling bisoprolol (BSP) flux by ion-pair strategy was initiated. Different ion-pair complexes including bisoprolol maleate (BSP-M), bisoprolol tartarate, bisoprolol besilate, and bisoprolol fumarate were prepared and their(More)
Saturated long-chain esters of isopulegol were synthesized and their activities as permeation enhancers for transdermal delivery of amlodipine and flurbiprofen were investigated, in contrast to the saturated fatty acids and isopulegol, as well as their physical mixtures. In vitro permeation experiments, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and(More)
The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of backing films on transdermal delivery of donepezil (DP) from patches. Three backing films, CotranTM 9700, CotranTM 9701, and CotranTM 9726 were chosen as backing layers to prepare transdermal patches containing DP. The transdermal penetration and release amount of DP from each patch were evaluated by(More)
To develop effective and safe penetration enhancers, a series of l-carvyl esters, namely, 5-isopropenyl-2-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-yl heptanoate (C-HEP), 5-isopropenyl-2- methylcyclohex-2-en-1-yl octanoate (C-OCT), 5-isopropenyl-2-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-yl decanoate (C-DEC), 5-isopropenyl-2-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-yl dodecanoate (C-DOD),(More)
Using tamsulosin (TAL) as a model drug, the aim of this study was to investigate and compare the percutaneous permeation behavior of two menthol derivatives, 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyl heptanoate (M-HEP) and 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyl decanoate (M-DEC). In vitro transdermal permeation study was carried out using porcine skin. The residual amount of(More)
The study aimed at increasing the skin retention of 3-O-ethyl-ascorbic acid (EA) and potassium 4-methoxysalicylate (4-MSK) via topical administration for effective skin-whitening. To achieve this goal, EA and 4-MSK were formulated into lamellar liquid crystalline (LLC) cream, and response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the formulation.(More)
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