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It has been well established by recording, inactivation, and neuroanatomical studies that the caudate nucleus is important for the control of saccadic eye movements. However, until now, there has been little evidence that the caudate nucleus plays a role in smooth pursuit eye movements. In the present study, we physiologically identified the smooth pursuit(More)
PURPOSE To elucidate the different neuromechanisms of subjects with strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia compared with normal vision subjects using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) and pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (PR-VEP). METHODS Fifty-three subjects, age range seven to 12 years, diagnosed with(More)
PURPOSE Systemic treatment with adenosine receptor antagonists has been reported to affect the biochemistry and ultrastructure of rabbit sclera. This study was conducted to determine whether adenosine receptors (ADORs) are present in human scleral fibroblasts (HSF). METHODS Primary HSF were cultured in vitro and identified with anti-vimentin,(More)
PURPOSE The present study was undertaken to investigate whether transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) isoforms (TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, and TGF-beta3) and SMADs (SMAD2 and SMAD3) are involved in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) corneal infection. METHODS Human corneal epithelial cells (HCE) were infected with HSV-1 at a multiplicity of infection of(More)
PURPOSE Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is a member of the main subgroup of bone morphogenetic proteins within the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. BMP-2 is involved in numerous cellular functions including development, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix synthesis. We examined BMP-2 expression in human scleral(More)
PURPOSE All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is known to inhibit the proliferation of human scleral fibroblasts (HSFs) and to modulate the scleral intercellular matrix composition, and may therefore serve as a mediator for controlling eye growth. Cell proliferation is regulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The aim of the current study(More)
PURPOSE The aim of this study was to identify the presence of collagen-binding integrin subunits in human scleral fibroblasts (HSFs) and investigate their actual functions in maintaining the mechanical creep properties of the HSFs-seeded collagen matrix. METHODS Primary HSFs were cultured in vitro. Reverse- transcription PCR was used to detect mRNA(More)
Single-molecule magnets are compounds that exhibit magnetic bistability purely of molecular origin. The control of anisotropy and suppression of quantum tunneling to obtain a comprehensive picture of the relaxation pathway manifold, is of utmost importance with the ultimate goal of slowing the relaxation dynamics within single-molecule magnets to facilitate(More)
The adenosine antagonist 7-methylxanthine (7-mx) works against myopia in animal models. In a clinical trial, 68 myopic children (mean age 11.3 years) received either placebo or 7-mx tablets for 12 months. All participants subsequently received 7-mx for another 12 months, after which treatment was stopped. Axial length was measured with Zeiss IOL-Master and(More)
PURPOSE Fibulin-1 (FBLN1) mRNA is expressed in human sclera and is an important adhesion modulatory protein that can affect cell-matrix interactions and tissue remodeling. Scleral remodeling is influenced by all-trans retinoic acid (RA). Our purpose was to confirm the presence of fibulin-1 protein in guinea pig sclera and investigate the effect of RA on the(More)