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Reliable data transmission over wireless multi-hop networks, called ad hoc networks, has proven to be non-trivial. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), a widely used end-to-end reliable transport protocol designed for wired networks, is not entirely suitable for wireless ad hoc networks due to the inappropriateness of TCP congestion control schemes.(More)
Untethered nodes in mobile ad-hoc networks strongly depend on the efficient use of their batteries. In this paper we propose a new metric, the drain rate, to forecast the lifetime of nodes according to current traffic conditions. This metric is combined with the value of the remaining battery capacity to determine which nodes can be part of an active route.(More)
Mobile ad hoc networks’ (MANETs) inherent power limitation makes power-awareness a critical requirement for MANET protocols. In this paper, we propose a new routing metric, the drain rate, which predicts the lifetime of a node as a function of current traffic conditions. We describe the Minimum Drain Rate (MDR) mechanism which uses a combination of the(More)
Recently, underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) have attractedmuch research attention from both academia and industry, in order to explore the vast underwater environment. UWSNs have peculiar characteristics; that is, they have large propagation delay, high error rate, low bandwidth, and limited energy. Therefore, designing network/routing protocols(More)
A regular heart beat is dependent on a specialized network of pacemaking and conductive cells. There has been a longstanding controversy regarding the developmental origin of these cardiac tissues which also manifest neural-like properties. Recently, we have shown conclusively that during chicken embryogenesis, impulse-conducting Purkinje cells are(More)
* This work was supported in part by the Brain Korea 21 project of the Ministry of Education, in part by the National Research Laboratory project of the Ministry of Science and Technology, and in part by the Electronics Telecommunication Research Institute, 2002, Korea. Abstract When a node in a mobile ad hoc network wants to send data packets to the(More)