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PURPOSE This study investigated the effect of treadmill running on cognitive declines in the early and advanced stages of Alzheimer disease (AD) in 3xTg-AD mice. METHODS At 4 months of age, 3xTg-AD mice (N = 24) were assigned to control (AD + CON, n = 12) or exercise (AD + EX, n = 12) group. At 24 months of age, 3xTg-AD mice (N = 16) were assigned to AD +(More)
Aminoterminal fragments of substance P (SP) have been previously shown to produce effects distinct, and often opposite, from those produced by the C-terminal of SP. The present investigation was initiated to determine whether N-terminal fragments interact at binding sites distinct from the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor where the C-terminal sequence of SP(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly results in the development of neuropathic pain, which can dramatically impair the quality of life for SCI patients. SCI-induced neuropathic pain can be manifested as both tactile allodynia (a painful sensation to a non-noxious stimulus) and hyperalgesia (an enhanced sensation to a painful stimulus). The mechanisms(More)
Stress causes endocrinological changes and leads to induce anxiety. It was determined the anxiety and stress-related endocrinological changes through the observation of the level of glucocorticoid and sphingolipid metabolites in serum after stress. Immobilized stress and electric shock was applied to rats for 7 days. This study investigated the induction of(More)
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) clinical strain Toledo and the attenuated strain AD169 exhibit a striking difference in pathogenic potential and cell tropism. The virulent Toledo genome contains a 15-kb segment, which is present in all virulent strains but is absent from the AD169 genome. The pathogenic differences between the 2 strains are thought to be(More)
Binding of [3H]DAGO to fresh, frozen or beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA) pretreated membranes of mouse brain and spinal cord was extensively studied using substance P (SP) or SP fragments as potential competitors and/or modulators. The objective was to determine whether SP exerts its analgesic effect by interacting with mu opioid receptors. The affinity of(More)
Morphine has been used widely on the treatment of many types of chronic pain. However the development of tolerance to and dependence on morphine by repeat application is a major problem in pain therapy. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether combined administration of nalbuphine with morphine affects the development of tolerance to and(More)
PURPOSE The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on a high fat diet (HFD)-induced fatty liver and its metabolic complications in C57BL/6 mice. METHODS Mice at 5-month old (n = 30) were randomly assigned to standard chow (SC + CON, n = 10) and high-fat diet (HFD, n = 20), and they were subjected to SC and HFD,(More)
Although the importance of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-3 has been demonstrated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the role of VEGFR-3 in functioning natural killer (NK) cells remains largely unexplored. NK cells can destroy cancer cells by releasing the cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ, but NK cells in AML patients (AML NK cells) have low(More)
LPS-induced inflammation and changes in protein phosphorylation and the JAK-STAT pathway accompanying glial activation after LPS treatment, were followed by analyzing secreted proinflammatory cytokine levels. The administration of LPS caused tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 in retinae and induced glial fibrillary acidic protein. (GFAP) from the nerve fiber(More)