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The fragmentation pathways of deprotonated cyclic dipeptides have been studied by electrospray ionization multi-stage mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn) in negative mode. The results showed that the fragmentation pathways of deprotonated cyclic dipeptides depended significantly on the different substituents, the side chains of amino acid residues at the(More)
A myosin surface loop (amino acids 391-404) is postulated to be an important actin binding site. In human beta-cardiac myosin, mutation of arginine-403 to a glutamine or a tryptophan causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. There is a phosphorylatable serine or threonine residue present on this loop in some lower eukaryotic myosin class I and myosin class VI(More)
First-principles quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical free energy calculations have been performed to provide the first detailed computational study on the possible mechanisms for reaction of proteasome with a representative peptide inhibitor, Epoxomicin (EPX). The calculated results reveal that the most favorable reaction pathway consists of five steps.(More)
The biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) is a subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a biotin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step of fatty acid biosynthesis. In its functional cycle the biotin carboxyl carrier protein engages in heterologous protein-protein interactions with three distinct partners, depending on its state of(More)
The C-repeat binding factor (CBF) is crucial for regulation of cold response in higher plants. In Arabidopsis, the mechanism of CBF3-caused growth retardation is still unclear. Our present work shows that CBF3 shares the similar repression of bioactive gibberellin (GA) as well as upregulation of DELLA proteins with CBF1 and -2. Genetic analysis reveals that(More)
In this study, a density functional theory (DFT) study has been carried out to investigate the mechanisms of Rh(I)-catalyzed carbenoid carbon insertion into a C-C bond reaction between benzocyclobutenol (R1) and diazoester (R2). The calculated results indicate that the reaction proceeds through five stages: deprotonation of R1, cleavage of the C-C bond,(More)
Economic performance is very important to advanced process control projects investigating whether the investment of control technology is worthwhile. In this paper economic performance assessment of a simulated electric arc furnace is conducted. The dependence of controlled variables and the corresponding economic impact are highlighted.
In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and first-principles quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical free energy (QM/MM-FE) calculations have been performed to uncover the fundamental reaction pathway of proteasome with a representative inhibitor syringolin A (SylA). The calculated results reveal that the reaction process consists of three steps.(More)
Lewis base N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed annulation is the subject of extensive interest in synthetic chemistry, but the reaction mechanisms, especially the unexpected chemoselectivity of some of these reactions, are poorly understood. In this work, a systematic theoretical calculation has been performed on NHC-catalyzed annulation between allenals(More)
A systematic theoretical study has been carried out to understand the mechanism and stereoselectivity of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed intramolecular crossed-benzoin reaction of enolizable keto-aldehyde using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The calculated results reveal that the most favorable pathway contains four steps, i.e., the(More)