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Maternal separation (MS), which can lead to hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis dysfunction and behavioral abnormalities in rhesus monkeys, is frequently used to model early adversity. Whether this deleterious effect on monkeys is reversible by later experience is unknown. In this study, we assessed the basal hair cortisol in rhesus monkeys after 1.5 and 3(More)
Photoelectrochemical water splitting directly converts solar energy to chemical energy stored in hydrogen, a high energy density fuel. Although water splitting using semiconductor photoelectrodes has been studied for more than 40 years, it has only recently been demonstrated using dye-sensitized electrodes. The quantum yield for water splitting in these(More)
In animal societies, some stressful events can lead to higher levels of physiological stress. Such stressors, like social rank, also predict an increased vulnerability to an array of diseases. However, the physiological relationship between social rank and stress varies between different species, as well as within groups of a single species. For example,(More)
Non-human primates offer unique opportunities to study the development of depression rooted in behavioral and physiological abnormalities. This study observed adult female rhesus macaques within social hierarchies and aimed to characterize the physiological and brain abnormalities accompanying depressive-like behavior. The behaviors of 31 female rhesus(More)
The X protein of hepatitis B virus (HBx) is one of the important factors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Raf1 kinase is a central component of many signaling pathways that are involved in normal cell growth and oncogenic transformation. We previously demonstrated that hepatitis B virus regulates Raf1 expression in HepG2.2.15 cells by(More)
The available evidence suggests that HBV proteins play an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). RhoC, a member of the Rho subfamily of the Ras superfamily of homologous genes, had been implicated in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. In a previous study, we demonstrated that HBx and HBs could up-regulate RhoC expression by(More)
Stress is associated with the onset of depressive episodes, and cortisol hypersecretion is considered a biological risk factor of depression. However, the possible mechanisms underlying stress, cortisol and depressive behaviours are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the interrelationships among stress, cortisol and observed depressive(More)
Here, we examine whether neurons differentiated from transplanted stem cells can integrate into the host neural network and function in awake animals, a goal of transplanted stem cell therapy in the brain. We have developed a technique in which a small "hole" is created in the inferior colliculus (IC) of rhesus monkeys, then stem cells are transplanted in(More)
Chronic stress is an important cause for depression. However, not everyone who is exposed to chronic stress will develop depression. Our previous studies demonstrated that early adversity can cause lasting changes in adolescent rhesus monkeys, but depressive symptoms have not been observed. Compared to adults, it is still unknown that whether adolescent(More)