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This study employed neurophysiological methods to relate the condition of the corticospinal system with the voluntary control of lower-limb muscles in persons with motor-incomplete spinal cord injury. It consisted of two phases. In a group of ten healthy subjects, single and paired transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex was used to(More)
To understand the theoretical effects of pulse width (PW) programming in spinal cord stimulation (SCS), we implemented a mathematical model of electrical fields and neural activation in SCS to gain insight into the effects of PW programming. The computational model was composed of a finite element model for structure and electrical properties, coupled with(More)
Organisms must be able to respond to low oxygen in a number of homeostatic and pathological contexts. Regulation of hypoxic responses via the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is well established, but evidence indicates that other, HIF-independent mechanisms are also involved. Here, we report a hypoxic response that depends on the accumulation of lactate, a(More)
Individuals with incomplete spinal cord injuries (SCI) retain varying degrees of voluntary motor control. The complexity of the motor control system and the nature of the recording biophysics have inhibited efforts to develop objective measures of voluntary motor control. This paper proposes the definition and use of a voluntary response index (VRI)(More)
In this paper, a method for analyzing surface electromyographic (sEMG) data recorded from the lower-limb muscles of incomplete spinal-cord injured (iSCI) subjects is evaluated. sEMG was recorded bilaterally from quadriceps, adductor, hamstring, tibialis anterior, and triceps surae muscles during voluntary ankle dorsiflexion performed in the supine position(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus has been demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of epilepsy. To investigate the mechanism of action of thalamic DBS, we examined the effects of high frequency stimulation (HFS) on spindle oscillations in thalamic brain slices from ferrets. We recorded intracellular and extracellular electrophysiological(More)
Polarization of cells by extracellular fields is relevant to neural stimulation, cardiac pacing, cardiac defibrillation, and electroporation. The electric field generated by an extracellular electrode may be nonuniform, and highly nonuniform fields are produced by microelectrodes and near the edges of larger electrodes. We solved analytically for the(More)
This prospective study examined normalized stability differences based on dominance side and visual feedback. Subjects with low back pain (LBP) (n=26; 9 men, 17 women) and without LBP (n=28; 11 men, 17 women) participated in this study. All subjects were asked to maintain single leg standing balance with the contralateral hip flexed 90° for 25s. The outcome(More)
Even though a number of studies have evaluated postural adjustments based on kinematic changes in subjects with low back pain (LBP), kinematic stability has not been examined for abnormal postural responses during the one leg standing test. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative kinematic stability of the lower extremities and standing(More)
STUDY DESIGN An experimental design comparing kinematic changes in the lumbar spine axis in subjects with and without low back pain (LBP) while standing on one leg with and without visual feedback. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lumbar stability index, which includes relative holding time (RHT) and relative standstill time (RST),(More)