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Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), a member of the high mobility group proteins, is essential for maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Most TFAM and mtDNA (both of which are normally soluble) was recovered from the particulate fraction of human placental mitochondria when extracted with the non-ionic detergent Nonidet P-40. mtDNA and TFAM(More)
Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is a ubiquitous degradative process in eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria autophagy (mitophagy) is a type of specific autophagy that degrades mitochondria selectively. Mitophagy is thought to play an important role for maintaining the quality of these organelles by eliminating damaged mitochondria, and it is involved in(More)
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is highly susceptible to injury induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). During aging, mutations of mtDNA accumulate to induce dysfunction of the respiratory chain, resulting in the enhanced ROS production. Therefore, age-dependent memory impairment may result from oxidative stress derived from the respiratory chain. Mitochondrial(More)
During replication, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) takes on a triple-stranded structure called a D-loop. Although their physiological roles are not understood, D-loops are implicated in replication and transcription of mtDNA. Little is known about the turnover of D-loops. We investigated the effects of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and(More)
Analysis of human heart mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by electron microscopy and agarose gel electrophoresis revealed a complete absence of the -type replication intermediates seen abundantly in mtDNA from all other tissues. Instead only Y- and X-junctional forms were detected after restriction digestion. Uncut heart mtDNA was organized in tangled complexes of(More)
In mammalian cells, the autophagy-dependent degradation of mitochondria (mitophagy) is thought to maintain mitochondrial quality by eliminating damaged mitochondria. However, the physiological importance of mitophagy has not been clarified in yeast. Here, we investigated the physiological role of mitophagy in yeast using mitophagy-deficient atg32- or(More)
Mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA; also designated Tfam) is necessary for both transcription and maintenance of mitochondrial DNA. mtTFA preferentially recognizes cisplatin-damaged DNA, as well as oxidized DNA. Increased apoptosis has been observed in mtTFA knockout animals, suggesting that mtTFA is involved in apoptosis. A fraction of p53 protein(More)
Background—Tumor necrosis factor-␣ (TNF-␣) and angiotensin II (Ang II) are implicated in the development and further progression of heart failure, which might be, at least in part, mediated by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the cause and consequences of this agonist-mediated ROS production in cardiac myocytes have not been well(More)
Oxidative DNA lesions inhibit the transcription of RNA polymerase II, but in the presence of transcription elongation factors, the transcription can bypass the lesions. Single-subunit mitochondrial RNA polymerase (mtRNAP) catalyses the synthesis of essential transcripts in mitochondria where reactive oxidative species (ROS) are generated as by-products. The(More)
Fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance is usually caused by point mutations within the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and/or parE. However, little is known about the worldwide increase in FQ-resistant Escherichia coli or, more specifically, about the geographical distribution of QRDR mutations and the clonal spread of(More)