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Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), a member of the high mobility group proteins, is essential for maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Most TFAM and mtDNA (both of which are normally soluble) was recovered from the particulate fraction of human placental mitochondria when extracted with the non-ionic detergent Nonidet P-40. mtDNA and TFAM(More)
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is highly susceptible to injury induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). During aging, mutations of mtDNA accumulate to induce dysfunction of the respiratory chain, resulting in the enhanced ROS production. Therefore, age-dependent memory impairment may result from oxidative stress derived from the respiratory chain. Mitochondrial(More)
Analysis of human heart mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by electron microscopy and agarose gel electrophoresis revealed a complete absence of the -type replication intermediates seen abundantly in mtDNA from all other tissues. Instead only Y- and X-junctional forms were detected after restriction digestion. Uncut heart mtDNA was organized in tangled complexes of(More)
Mitophagy, which selectively degrades mitochondria via autophagy, has a significant role in mitochondrial quality control. When mitophagy is induced in yeast, mitochondrial residential protein Atg32 binds Atg11, an adaptor protein for selective types of autophagy, and it is recruited into the vacuole along with mitochondria. The Atg11-Atg32 interaction is(More)
Enhanced oxidative stress has been implicated in the excitotoxicity of the CNS, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-guanine (8-oxoG), a major type of oxidative damage in nucleic acids, was reported to be accumulated in the rat hippocampus after kainate administration. We herein showed that the 8-oxoG levels in mitochondrial DNA and cellular RNA increased significantly in(More)
ERAL1, a homologue of Era protein in Escherichia coli, is a member of conserved GTP-binding proteins with RNA-binding activity. Depletion of prokaryotic Era inhibits cell division without affecting chromosome segregation. Previously, we isolated ERAL1 protein as one of proteins which were associated with mitochondrial transcription factor A by using(More)
Increasing evidence indicates that oxidative stress is an important mechanism underlying motor neuron (MN) degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is highly susceptible to oxidative damage and has little potential for repair, although mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) plays essential roles in maintaining(More)
During replication, human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) takes on a triple-stranded structure known as a D-loop, which is implicated in replication and transcription. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+), a toxin inducing parkinsonism, inhibits mtDNA replication, possibly by resolving the D-loops. For initiation of mtDNA replication, mitochondria are thought(More)
BACKGROUND There has been controversy over the diagnostic thresholds of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) for diabetes. In addition, no study has examined the thresholds of glycated albumin (GA) and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) for diagnosing diabetes using the presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR). We examined the optimal thresholds of various glycemic measures for(More)
p32 is an evolutionarily conserved and ubiquitously expressed multifunctional protein. Although p32 exists at diverse intra and extracellular sites, it is predominantly localized to the mitochondrial matrix near the nucleoid associated with mitochondrial transcription factor A. Nonetheless, its function in the matrix is poorly understood. Here, we(More)