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Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), a member of the high mobility group proteins, is essential for maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Most TFAM and mtDNA (both of which are normally soluble) was recovered from the particulate fraction of human placental mitochondria when extracted with the non-ionic detergent Nonidet P-40. mtDNA and TFAM(More)
During replication, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) takes on a triple-stranded structure called a D-loop. Although their physiological roles are not understood, D-loops are implicated in replication and transcription of mtDNA. Little is known about the turnover of D-loops. We investigated the effects of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and(More)
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is highly susceptible to injury induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). During aging, mutations of mtDNA accumulate to induce dysfunction of the respiratory chain, resulting in the enhanced ROS production. Therefore, age-dependent memory impairment may result from oxidative stress derived from the respiratory chain. Mitochondrial(More)
Analysis of human heart mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by electron microscopy and agarose gel electrophoresis revealed a complete absence of the -type replication intermediates seen abundantly in mtDNA from all other tissues. Instead only Y- and X-junctional forms were detected after restriction digestion. Uncut heart mtDNA was organized in tangled complexes of(More)
Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is a ubiquitous degradative process in eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria autophagy (mitophagy) is a type of specific autophagy that degrades mitochondria selectively. Mitophagy is thought to play an important role for maintaining the quality of these organelles by eliminating damaged mitochondria, and it is involved in(More)
OBJECTIVES Coagulation factor V Leiden has not been detected in Japanese patients suffering from thrombosis. Hitherto, the constitutional background of Japanese thrombotic patients has never been systematically examined. We have performed a systematic investigation to determine pathogenesis for deep vein thrombosis in a Japanese population. DESIGN AND(More)
Mitochondria have their own genome, which is essential for proper oxidative phosphorylation and hence for a large part of ATP production in a cell. Although mitochondrial DNA-less (rho0) cells can survive under certain conditions, the integrity of the mitochondrial genome is critical for the survival of multicellular organisms. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is(More)
Mammalian mitochondria contain strong nuclease activity. Endonuclease G (endoG), which predominantly resides in mitochondria, accounts for a large part of this nuclease activity. It has been proposed to act as an RNase H-like nuclease on RNA.DNA hybrids (R-loops) in the D-loop region where the origins of mitochondrial replication are mapped, providing RNA(More)
Mitophagy, which selectively degrades mitochondria via autophagy, has a significant role in mitochondrial quality control. When mitophagy is induced in yeast, mitochondrial residential protein Atg32 binds Atg11, an adaptor protein for selective types of autophagy, and it is recruited into the vacuole along with mitochondria. The Atg11-Atg32 interaction is(More)
In mammalian cells, the autophagy-dependent degradation of mitochondria (mitophagy) is thought to maintain mitochondrial quality by eliminating damaged mitochondria. However, the physiological importance of mitophagy has not been clarified in yeast. Here, we investigated the physiological role of mitophagy in yeast using mitophagy-deficient atg32- or(More)