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Distinct histone lysine methylation marks are involved in transcriptional repression linked to the formation and maintenance of facultative heterochromatin, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We demonstrate that the malignant-brain-tumor (MBT) protein L3MBTL1 is in a complex with core histones, histone H1b, HP1gamma, and Rb. The MBT domain(More)
This paper generalizes the widely used Nelder-Mead (1965) simplex algorithm to parallel processors. Unlike most previous parallelization methods, which are based on parallelizing the tasks required to compute a specific objective function given a vector of parameters, our parallel simplex algorithm uses parallelization at the parameter level. Our parallel(More)
Leigh syndrome (LS) is a subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy with gliosis in several brain regions that usually results in infantile death. Loss of murine Ndufs4, which encodes NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) iron-sulfur protein 4, results in compromised activity of mitochondrial complex I as well as progressive neurodegenerative and behavioral changes(More)
The size of skeletal muscle cells is precisely regulated by intracellular signaling networks that determine the balance between overall rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Myofiber growth and protein synthesis are stimulated by the IGF-1/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. In this study, we show that the transcription factor JunB is(More)
The Notch signaling pathway is essential for neuronal and glial specification during CNS development. Mind bomb-1 (Mib1) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates and promotes the endocytosis of Notch ligands. Although Mib1 is essential for transmitting the Notch signal, it is still unclear whether it is a primary regulator of Notch ligand activity in(More)
A hallmark of brain injury from infection, vascular, neurodegenerative, and other disorders is the development of gliosis, which can be detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In rodent models of diet-induced obesity (DIO), high-fat diet (HFD) consumption rapidly induces inflammation and gliosis in energy-regulating regions of the mediobasal(More)
Activation of the PI3K-Akt-FoxO pathway induces cell growth, whereas its inhibition reduces cell survival and, in muscle, causes atrophy. Here, we report a novel mechanism that suppresses PI3K-Akt-FoxO signaling. Although skeletal muscle lacks desmosomes, it contains multiple desmosomal components, including plakoglobin. In normal muscle plakoglobin binds(More)
Gliosis, the activation of astrocyte and microglial cell populations, is a hallmark of central nervous system injury and is detectable using either immunohistochemistry or in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Obesity in rodents and humans is associated with gliosis of the arcuate nucleus, a key hypothalamic region for the regulation of energy(More)
BACKGROUND Recent advances in nanotechnology have led to the development of biocompatible nanoparticles for in vivo molecular imaging and targeted therapy. Many nanoparticles have undesirable tissue distribution or unacceptably low serum half-lives. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and biodistribution studies can help inform decisions determining particle size,(More)
Pathway-based analysis, used in conjunction with genome-wide association study (GWAS) techniques, is a powerful tool to detect subtle but systematic patterns in genome that can help elucidate complex diseases, like cancers. Here, we stepped back from genetic polymorphisms at a single locus and examined how multiple association signals can be orchestrated to(More)