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AIM To explore the virulence and the infectivity of coccoid Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) transformed from spiral form by exposure to sterile tap water. METHODS Three strains of H. pylori, isolated from gastric biopsy specimens of confirmed peptic ulcer, were converted from spiral into coccoid form by exposure to sterile tap water. Both spiral and(More)
AIM To investigate the effect of fractalkine on the expression of the tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-activated murine microglia cells line N9. METHODS In vitro LPS-activated microglia cells were treated for 24 h in the presence of fractalkine. The level of TNF-α and IL-1β in the culture supernatants(More)
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