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The de novo origin of a new protein-coding gene from non-coding DNA is considered to be a very rare occurrence in genomes. Here we identify 60 new protein-coding genes that originated de novo on the human lineage since divergence from the chimpanzee. The functionality of these genes is supported by both transcriptional and proteomic evidence. RNA-seq data(More)
BACKGROUND A major reduction of genetic diversity in mtDNA occurred during the domestication of East Asian pigs. However, the extent to which genetic diversity has been lost in the nuclear genome is uncertain. To reveal levels and patterns of nucleotide diversity and to elucidate the genetic relationships and demographic history of domestic pigs and their(More)
AIM To investigate the neuroprotective effects of LLDT-67, a novel derivative of triptolide, in MPTP-induced mouse Parkinson's disease (PD) models and in primary cultured astrocytes, and to elucidate the mechanisms of the action. METHODS In order to induce PD, C57BL/6 mice were injected MPTP (30 mg/kg, ip) daily from d 2 to d 6. MPTP-induced behavioral(More)
BACKGROUND Hair is unique to mammals. Keratin associated proteins (KRTAPs), which contain two major groups: high/ultrahigh cysteine and high glycine-tyrosine, are one of the major components of hair and play essential roles in the formation of rigid and resistant hair shafts. RESULTS The KRTAP family was identified as being unique to mammals, and(More)
BACKGROUND During the colonization of the world, after dispersal out of African, modern humans encountered changeable environments and substantial phenotypic variations that involve diverse behaviors, lifestyles and cultures, were generated among the different modern human populations. RESULTS Here, we study the level of population differentiation among(More)
Proteins involved in a pathway are likely to evolve in a correlated fashion, and coevolving gene families tend to undergo complementary gains and losses. Accordingly, gene copy numbers (i.e., repertoire size) tend to show parallel changes during the evolution of coevolving gene families. To test and verify this hypothesis, here we describe positive(More)
GDF5 is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) gene family, and plays an important role in the development of the skeletal system. Variants of the gene are associated with osteoarthritis and height in some human populations. Here, we resequenced the gene in individuals from four geographically separated human populations, and found that the(More)
New genes, which provide material for evolutionary innovation, have been extensively studied for many years in animals where it is observed that they commonly show an expression bias for the testis. Thus, the testis is a major source for the generation of new genes in animals. The source tissue for new genes in plants is unclear. Here, we find that new(More)
BACKGROUND The intron 5 of gene LMBR1 is the cis-acting regulatory module for the sonic hedgehog (SHH) gene. Mutation in this non-coding region is associated with preaxial polydactyly, and may play crucial roles in the evolution of limb and skeletal system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We sequenced a region of the LMBR1 gene intron 5 in East Asian human(More)
BACKGROUND Human skeletal system has evolved rapidly since the dispersal of modern humans from Africa, potentially driven by selection and adaptation. Osteogenin (BMP3) plays an important role in skeletal development and bone osteogenesis as an antagonist of the osteogenic bone morphogenetic proteins, and negatively regulates bone mineral density. (More)