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A keratinolytic protease-producing microorganism was isolated from soybean paste waste and was identified as a strain of Bacillus sp. The keratinase was purified by polyethylene glycol precipitation and two successive column chromatographies with DEAE-Toyopearl 650C and Sephacryl S-200 HR. The purified enzyme had overall 11 purification folds with an 18%(More)
Adding a large amount of light elements such as aluminum to steels is not a new concept recalling that several Fe-Al-Mn-C alloys were patented in 1950s for replacement of nickel or chromium in corrosion resistance steels. However, the so-called lightweight steels or low-density steels were revisited recently, which is driven by demands from the industry(More)
There are precise observations which indicate the reluctance of excess carbon within bainite or martensite to partition into adjacent austenite in spite of prolonged heat treatment at temperatures where carbon is mobile. To explain this, we report the first calculations of the solubility of carbon in tetragonal ferrite that is in equilibrium with austenite.(More)
1 The interphase precipitation of carbides has been studied in two microalloyed steels containing Ti and Nb, but only one of which contains molybdenum. The precipitates obtained are, therefore, (Ti,Nb)C and (Ti,Nb,Mo)C respectively. It is found that molybdenum significantly reduces the size of the carbide precipitates and also strongly retards their(More)
Calculations indicate that the introduction of hydrogen into the body–centred cubic and face-centred cubic allotropes of iron in both cases reduces the {100} surface energy. The reduction is rather small in magnitude so this mechanism cannot present the major cause of the well–known hydrogen embrittlement phenomenon. Consistent with the theory of grain(More)
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. after imatinib was reported to date; yet, the case(More)
We report the mechanistic explanation of the variation in Lüders strain in fine-grained transformation-induced plasticity assisted steel. The austenite stability is demonstrated to have a profound influence on the Lüders strain. Furthermore, it is shown unambiguously using a thermodynamic analysis that the transformation of austenite is strain-induced. The(More)
The mechanical stability of austenite in steels which rely on transformation–induced plasticity is usually attributed to its chemical composition, size and shape. We demonstrate here that another factor, the partitioning of strain between phases with different mechanical properties, can dramatically influence the stability. Many modern steels rely on a(More)
An implicit finite element model was developed to analyze the deformation behavior of low carbon steel during phase transformation. The finite element model was coupled hierarchically with a phase field model that could simulate the kinetics and micro-structural evolution during the austenite-to-ferrite transformation of low carbon steel.(More)