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New structures of RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcribing complexes reveal a likely key to transcription. The trigger loop swings beneath a correct nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) in the nucleotide addition site, closing off the active center and forming an extensive network of interactions with the NTP base, sugar, phosphates, and additional pol II residues.(More)
Many biological processes are controlled by intricate networks of transcriptional regulators. With the development of microarray technology, transcriptional changes can be examined at the whole-genome level. However, such analysis often lacks information on the hierarchical relationship between components of a given system. Systemic acquired resistance(More)
Genes in the CCCH family encode zinc finger proteins containing the motif with three cysteines and one histidine residues. They have been known to play important roles in RNA processing as RNA-binding proteins in animals. To date, few plant CCCH proteins have been studied functionally. In this study, a comprehensive computational analysis identified 68 and(More)
Cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are platinum-based drugs that are widely used in cancer chemotherapy. Platinum-DNA adducts, which are formed following uptake of the drug into the nucleus of cells, activate several cellular processes that mediate the cytotoxicity of these platinum drugs. This review focuses on recently discovered cellular pathways(More)
Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) mediate metastasis, are resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, and contribute to relapse. Although several BCSC markers have been described, it is unclear whether these markers identify the same or independent BCSCs. Here, we show that BCSCs exist in distinct mesenchymal-like(More)
Online object tracking is a challenging problem as it entails learning an effective model to account for appearance change caused by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this paper, we propose a novel online object tracking algorithm with sparse prototypes, which exploits both classic principal component analysis (PCA) algorithms with recent sparse(More)
WTF ("Who to Follow") is Twitter's user recommendation service, which is responsible for creating millions of connections daily between users based on shared interests, common connections, and other related factors. This paper provides an architectural overview and shares lessons we learned in building and running the service over the past few years.(More)
The phytohormone auxin regulates almost every aspect of plant development. At the molecular level, auxin induces gene expression through direct physical interaction with the TIR1-like F box proteins, which in turn remove the Aux/IAA family of transcriptional repressors [1-4]. A growing body of evidence indicates that many plant pathogens can either produce(More)
In plants, systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is established as a result of NPR1-regulated expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Using gene expression profiling in Arabidopsis, we found that in addition to controlling the expression of PR genes, NPR1 also directly controls the expression of the protein secretory pathway genes. Up-regulation of(More)