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This protocol provides an introduction to soft lithography--a collection of techniques based on printing, molding and embossing with an elastomeric stamp. Soft lithography provides access to three-dimensional and curved structures, tolerates a wide variety of materials, generates well-defined and controllable surface chemistries, and is generally compatible(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Essential tremor (ET) is suggested to be a neural degenerative disease. The authors investigated the fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value in basal ganglia, thalamus, red nucleus, and substantia nigra in ET patients using diffusion tensor image (DTI). METHODS DTI examination was carried out in(More)
PURPOSE Our previous study showed that apelin was increased in the vitreous and fibrotic membranes of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in vivo, which suggested that apelin may be involved in the development of PDR. In this study, we investigated whether the expression of apelin was upregulated in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE)(More)
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on gold nanohole and nanodisk arrays with precisely controlled size and spacing fabricated via electron beam lithography was investigated. These nanostructures exhibit strong SERS signals at 785 nm excitation but not at 514 nm. When the edge-to-edge distance is maintained, enhancement increases for nanoholes but(More)
This paper describes several methods that generate patterned relief structures for casting the elastomeric stamps required in microcontact printing kCP). The relief structures include the following: (1) patterns etched in thin frlms of silver (200 nm thick) with printed SAMs of hexadecanethiolate as resists; (2) patterned pol5rmeric structures assembled on(More)
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a near-field phenomenon that relies on the intensified electric fields (E-fields) on a metal nanostructure when its localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is excited by light. [1, 2] Although it has been demonstrated that the hot spots between two or multiple Ag nanoparticles can amplify Raman signals by as(More)
A new type of photomask was fabricated by casting a prepolymer of a transparent, elastomeric polymer ͑polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS͒ against a Si͑100͒ master whose surface has been patterned with V-shaped trenches or pyramidal pits using anisotropic etching. The PDMS replica, when placed in contact with a film of photoresist and illuminated, acts as a(More)
Achieving mastery over the synthesis of metal nanocrystals has emerged as one of the foremost scientific endeavors in recent years. This intense interest stems from the fact that the composition, size, and shape of nanocrystals not only define their overall physicochemical properties but also determine their effectiveness in technologically important(More)