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Recent studies suggest that cancer can arise from a cancer stem cell (CSC), a tumor-initiating cell that has properties similar to those of stem cells. CSCs have been identified in several malignancies, including those of blood, brain, and breast. Here, we test whether stem cell-like populations exist in human melanomas. In approximately 20% of the(More)
Recent studies have identified a Lys 27-to-methionine (K27M) mutation at one allele of H3F3A, one of the two genes encoding histone H3 variant H3.3, in 60% of high-grade pediatric glioma cases. The median survival of this group of patients after diagnosis is ∼1 yr. Here we show that the levels of H3K27 di- and trimethylation (H3K27me2 and H3K27me3) are(More)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor in human. Recent studies on high-grade pediatric GBM have identified two recurrent mutations (K27M and G34R/V) in genes encoding histone H3 (H3F3A for H3.3 and HIST1H3B for H3.1). The two histone H3 mutations are mutually exclusive and give rise to tumors in different brain compartments.(More)
Primary and metastatic cancers that affect bone are frequently associated with severe and intractable pain. The mechanisms underlying the development of bone cancer pain are largely unknown. In this study, we first demonstrated that a functional upregulation of P2X3 receptors in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons is closely associated with the neuronal(More)
Melastatin 1 (MLSN1), originally identified as melanoma metastasis suppressor, represents a TRPM subfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins which serve diverse biological roles in a wide variety of cell types. Down-regulation of MLSN1 expression in human cutaneous melanoma, as indicated by in situ hybridization, appears to be a prognostic(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe a modified suture technique for transperitoneal laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty (TPLDP) that can be consistently replicated. METHODS Between June 2010 and April 2014, 21 men and 7 women with primary pelviureteric junction obstruction underwent our modified TPLDP suture technique performed by the same surgeon. In our method, the(More)
N-deoxyribosyltransferases are essential enzymes in the nucleotide salvage pathway of lactobacilli. They catalyze the exchange between the purine or pyrimidine bases of 2'-deoxyribonucleosides and free pyrimidine or purine bases. In general, N-deoxyribosyltransferases are referred to as cytoplasmic enzymes, although there is no experimental evidence for(More)
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification. Ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins are involved in DNA demethylation through iteratively oxidizing 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Here we show that human TET1 and TET2 are more active on 5mC-DNA than 5hmC/5fC-DNA(More)
Hair follicles are known to contain a well-characterized niche for adult stem cells: the bulge, which contains epithelial and melanocytic stem cells. Using human embryonic stem cell culture conditions, we isolated a population of adult stem cells from human hair follicles that are distinctively different from known epithelial or melanocytic stem cells.(More)
Because of their undifferentiated nature, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are an ideal model system for studying both normal human development and the processes that underlie disease. In the current study, we describe an efficient method for differentiating hESCs into a melanocyte population within 4-6 weeks using three growth factors: Wnt3a,(More)