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Pulmonary fibrosis is a potentially life-threatening disease that may be caused by overt or asymptomatic inflammatory responses. However, the precise mechanisms by which tissue injury is translated into inflammation and consequent fibrosis remain to be established. Here, we show that in a lung injury model, bleomycin induced the secretion of IL-6 by(More)
Transglutaminase 4 is a member of enzyme family that catalyzes calcium-dependent posttranslational modification of proteins. Although transglutaminase 4 has been shown to have prostate-restricted expression pattern, little is known about the biological function of transglutaminase 4 in human. To gain insight into its role in prostate, we analyzed the(More)
Recently, we identified in adult tissues a population of Oct4(+)SSEA-1(+)Sca-1(+)lin(-)CD45(-) very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs). First, to address recent controversies on Oct4 expression in cells isolated from adult organs, we show here evidence that Oct4 promoter in bone marrow (BM)-derived VSELs has an open chromatin structure and is actively(More)
Recently, we purified rare CXC chemokine receptor 4 expressing (CXCR4(+)) small stem cells (SCs) from the murine bone marrow (BM) that express markers characteristic for embryonic (E)SCs, epiblast (EP)SCs, and primordial germ cells (PGCs). We named these primitive cells very small embryonic-like (VSEL) SCs (VSELs). Our data indicate that VSELs are also(More)
Tissue and organ rejuvenation and senescence/aging are closely related to the function of stem cells. Recently, we demonstrated that a population of pluripotent Oct-4+ SSEA-1+Sca-1+Lin-CD45- very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) resides in the adult murine bone marrow (BM) and other murine tissues. We hypothesize that these pluripotent stem cells(More)
Aberrant activation of transglutaminase 2 (TGase2) contributes to a variety of protein conformational disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases and age-related cataracts. The accumulation of improperly folded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR), which promotes either repair or degradation of the damaged(More)
An abrupt increase of intracellular Ca(2+) is observed in cells under hypoxic or oxidatively stressed conditions. The dysregulated increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) triggers apoptotic cell death through mitochondrial swelling and activation of Ca(2+)-dependent enzymes. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a Ca(2+)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes transamidation reaction(More)
It is well known that attenuated insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) has a positive effect on longevity in several animal species, including mice. Here, we demonstrate that a population of murine pluripotent very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) that reside in bone marrow (BM) is protected from premature depletion during aging by(More)
Increase in life span in RasGrf1-deficient mice revealed that RasGrf1 deficiency promotes longevity. Interestingly, RasGrf1 is one of parentally imprinted genes transcribed from paternally-derived chromosome. Erasure of its imprinting results in RasGrf1 downregulation and has been demonstrated in a population of pluripotent adult tissues-derived very small(More)
It has been postulated that the most primitive population of stem cells, Oct4(+)Sca-1(+)Lin(-)CD45(-) very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs), differentiate into tissue-committed stem cells in adult mice. However, Oct4(+) VSELs remain quiescent in adult tissues and do not form teratomas. In thi study, we report the characteristics of the VSEL(More)