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The adult mammalian brain contains populations of stem cells that can proliferate and then differentiate into neurons or glia. The highest concentration of such neural progenitor cells (NPC) is located in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and these cells can produce new olfactory bulb and cerebral cortical neurons. NPC may provide a cellular reservoir for(More)
Neurons require large amounts of energy to support their survival and function, and are therefore susceptible to excitotoxicity, a form of cell death involving bioenergetic stress that may occur in several neurological disorders including stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Here we studied the roles of NAD(+) bioenergetic state, and the NAD(+)-dependent enzymes(More)
We measured and manipulated intracellular potassium (K+) fluxes in cultured hippocampal neurons in an effort to understand the involvement of K+ in neuronal death under conditions of ischemia and exposure to apoptotic stimuli. Measurements of the intracellular K+ concentration using the fluorescent probe 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid,(More)
Neurons are excitable cells that require large amounts of energy to support their survival and functions and are therefore prone to excitotoxicity, which involves energy depletion. By examining bioenergetic changes induced by glutamate, we found that the cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) level is a critical determinant of neuronal(More)
Neurons express a variety of plasma-membrane potassium channels that play important roles in regulating neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission, but also contain mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels, the functions of which are unknown. Studies of cardiac cells suggest that similar mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels are involved(More)
R-spondin proteins strongly potentiate Wnt signalling and function as stem-cell growth factors. Despite the biological and therapeutic significance, the molecular mechanism of R-spondin action remains unclear. Here we show that the cell-surface transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligase zinc and ring finger 3 (ZNRF3) and its homologue ring finger 43 (RNF43) are(More)
UNLABELLED H9N2 avian influenza virus has been prevalent in poultry in many parts of the world since the 1990s and occasionally crosses the host barrier, transmitting to mammals, including humans. In recent years, these viruses have contributed genes to H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses, threatening public health. To explore the molecular mechanism for the(More)
The high-metabolic demand of neurons and their reliance on glucose as an energy source places them at risk for dysfunction and death under conditions of metabolic and oxidative stress. Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are mitochondrial inner membrane proteins implicated in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsim) and cellular energy(More)
7,8-Dihydro-8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) is a major DNA glycosylase involved in base-excision repair (BER) of oxidative DNA damage to nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We used OGG1-deficient (OGG1(-/-)) mice to examine the possible roles of OGG1 in the vulnerability of neurons to ischemic and oxidative stress. After exposure of cultured neurons(More)
The actin-modulating protein Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein verprolin homologous-1 (WAVE1) and a novel CNS-specific protein, pancortin, are highly enriched in adult cerebral cortex, but their functions are unknown. Here we show that WAVE1 and pancortin-2 interact in a novel cell death cascade in adult, but not embryonic, cerebral cortical neurons. Focal(More)