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The Chk2-p53-PUMA pathway is a major regulator of DNA-damage-induced apoptosis in response to double-strand breaks in vivo. Through analysis of 53BP1 complexes we have discovered a new ubiquitin protease, USP28, which regulates this pathway. Using a human cell line that faithfully recapitulated the Chk2-p53-PUMA pathway, we show that USP28 is required to(More)
Granzyme A (GzmA) activates a caspase-independent cell death pathway with morphological features of apoptosis. Single-stranded DNA damage is initiated when the endonuclease NM23-H1 becomes activated to nick DNA after granzyme A cleaves its inhibitor, SET. SET and NM23-H1 reside in an endoplasmic reticulum-associated complex (the SET complex) that(More)
The BRCT repeats of the breast and ovarian cancer predisposition protein BRCA1 are essential for tumor suppression. Phosphopeptide affinity proteomic analysis identified a protein, Abraxas, that directly binds the BRCA1 BRCT repeats through a phospho-Ser-X-X-Phe motif. Abraxas binds BRCA1 to the mutual exclusion of BACH1 (BRCA1-associated C-terminal(More)
Granzyme A (GzmA) induces a caspase-independent cell death pathway characterized by single-stranded DNA nicks and other features of apoptosis. A GzmA-activated DNase (GAAD) is in an ER associated complex containing pp32 and the GzmA substrates SET, HMG-2, and Ape1. We show that GAAD is NM23-H1, a nucleoside diphosphate kinase implicated in suppression of(More)
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can induce potent gene silencing by degradation of cognate mRNA. However, in dividing cells, the silencing lasts only 3 to 7 days, presumably because of siRNA dilution with cell division. Here, we investigated if sustained siRNA-mediated silencing of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is possible in terminally(More)
Despite the frequency of HIV-specific CD8 T cells, most HIV-infected patients do not control viral replication without antiviral drugs. Although CD8 T cells are important in containing acute HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, CD8 T-cell functions are compromised in chronic infection. To investigate whether functional deficits are(More)
In previous studies we have shown that the sensitivity of melanoma cell lines to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis was determined largely by the level of expression of death receptor TRAIL receptor 2 on the cells. However, approximately one-third of melanoma cell lines were resistant to TRAIL, despite(More)
The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protease granzyme A induces caspase-independent cell death in which DNA single-stranded nicking is observed instead of oligonucleosomal fragmentation. A 270- to 420-kDa endoplasmic reticulum-associated complex (SET complex) containing the nucleosome assembly protein SET, the tumor suppressor pp32, and the base excision repair(More)
Transcription of C-reactive protein (CRP) in Hep 3B cells is induced by IL-6, acting through C/EBP isoforms and STAT3. IL-1beta, which alone has no effect, greatly enhances IL-6-induced transcription by unknown mechanisms. Because IL-1beta activates the NF-kappaB system, we explored the effects of overexpressed Rel family members on CRP expression.(More)
Perforin (PFN) delivery of granzymes (Gzm) into the target cell at the immunological synapse is the major pathway for inducing apoptosis of virus-infected cells and tumors. A validated model for how PFN delivers Gzm into the cytosol is still lacking. PFN was originally thought to work by forming pores in the target cell plasma membrane that allow Gzm entry.(More)