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The transcription factor NF-κB has an essential role in inflammation in endothelial cells. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived nitric oxide (NO) prevents vascular inflammation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying NF-κB-mediated regulation of eNOS expression has not been clearly elucidated. We here found that NF-κB-activating stimuli,(More)
Redd1 (known as RTP801/Dig2/DDIT4) is a stress-induced protein, and it is known to be regulated in response to some stresses including hypoxia and oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated the time-dependent changes in Redd1 immunoreactivity and its protein levels in the gerbil hippocampus proper (CA1-3 regions) after 5 min of transient global(More)
Ginseng berry possesses higher ginsenoside content than its root, which has been traditionally used in herbal medicine for many human diseases, including atherosclerosis. We here examined the antiatherogenic effects of the Korean ginseng berry extract (KGBE) and investigated its underlying mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo. Administration of KGBE(More)
AIMS Hypoxia induces expression of various genes and microRNAs (miRs) that regulate angiogenesis and vascular function. In this study, we investigated a new functional role of new hypoxia-responsive miR-101 in angiogenesis and its underlying mechanism for regulating heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. RESULTS(More)
Ginsenoside Rg5 is a compound newly synthesized during the steaming process of ginseng; however, its biological activity has not been elucidated with regard to endothelial function. We found that Rg5 stimulated in vitro angiogenesis of human endothelial cells, consistent with increased neovascularization and blood perfusion in a mouse hind limb ischemia(More)
Keap1 is a cytoplasmic repressor of the transcription factor Nrf2, and its degradation induces Nrf2 activation, leading to upregulation of antioxidant phase II genes. We investigated the roles of phase II genes in vascular inflammation and septic injury using Keap1 siRNA and elucidated its underlying mechanism. Selective knockdown of Keap1 with siRNA(More)
Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms are hemoenzymes that are only active as homodimers. We have examined the effect of the substrate-analogue inhibitors, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMA), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), N(5)-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine (L-NIO), and N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-L-lysine (L-NIL), the(More)
Instillation of highly soluble nanoparticles (NPs) into the lungs of rodents can cause acute eosinophilia without any previous sensitizations by the role of dissolved ions. However, whether gradually dissolving NPs can cause the same type of eosinophilia remains to be elucidated. We selected nickel oxide (NiO) as a gradually dissolving NP and evaluated the(More)
REDD1 is induced by various cellular stresses; however, its expression in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has not been clearly elucidated in immune cells. LPS stimulated CREB-dependent and NF-κB-independent REDD1 expression in macrophages. Early increases in CREB phosphorylation and REDD1 expression at 8h following LPS treatment were blocked by(More)
Preeclampsia is an inflammatory disease with endothelial cell dysfunction that occurs via decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide (eNOS/NO) activity. Aspirin reduces the incidence of hypertensive pregnancy complications. However, the underlying mechanism has not been clearly explained. Here, we found that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α,(More)