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The concept of canopy spectral invariants expresses the observation that simple algebraic combinations of leaf and canopy spectral transmittance and reflectance become wavelength independent and determine a small set of canopy structure specific variables. This set includes the canopy interceptance, the recollision and the escape probabilities. These(More)
Many applications in computer vision (e.g., games, human computer interaction) require a reliable and early detector of visual events. Existing event detection methods rely on one-versus-all or multi-class classifiers that do not scale well to online detection of large number of events. This paper proposes Sequential Max-Margin Event Detectors (SMMED) to(More)
Radiation reflected from vegetation canopies exhibits high spatial variation. Satellite-borne sensors measure the mean intensities emanating from heterogeneous vegetated pixels. The theory of radiative transfer in stochastic media provides the most logical linkage between satellite observations and the three-dimensional canopy structure through a closed(More)
OBJECTIVE Both advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) and dendritic cells (DCs) have been shown to play a causative role in atherosclerosis. However, whether they function interactively in the process remains uncertain. We therefore studied the effects of AGE-bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA) on the maturation of DCs and the expressions of scavenger(More)
Head pose estimation from images has recently attracted much attention in computer vision due to its diverse applications in face recognition, driver monitoring and human computer interaction. Most successful approaches to head pose estimation formulate the problem as a nonlinear regression between image features and continuous 3D angles (i.e. yaw, pitch(More)
—Broadleaf forest is a major type of Earth's land cover with the highest observable vegetation density. Retrievals of bio-physical parameters, such as leaf area index (LAI), of broadleaf forests at global scale constitute a major challenge to modern remote sensing techniques in view of low sensitivity (saturation) of surface reflectances to such parameters(More)