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Recent studies suggest that cancer can arise from a cancer stem cell (CSC), a tumor-initiating cell that has properties similar to those of stem cells. CSCs have been identified in several malignancies, including those of blood, brain, and breast. Here, we test whether stem cell-like populations exist in human melanomas. In approximately 20% of the(More)
Recent studies have identified a Lys 27-to-methionine (K27M) mutation at one allele of H3F3A, one of the two genes encoding histone H3 variant H3.3, in 60% of high-grade pediatric glioma cases. The median survival of this group of patients after diagnosis is ∼1 yr. Here we show that the levels of H3K27 di- and trimethylation (H3K27me2 and H3K27me3) are(More)
Hair follicles are known to contain a well-characterized niche for adult stem cells: the bulge, which contains epithelial and melanocytic stem cells. Using human embryonic stem cell culture conditions, we isolated a population of adult stem cells from human hair follicles that are distinctively different from known epithelial or melanocytic stem cells.(More)
Paraoxonase 1, an HDL-associated enzyme that confers antioxidant activity on HDL, and its activity in serum have been correlated with protection against atherosclerosis, an oxidative disease. However, serum PON-1 activity is highly variable and its regulation is complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. It is influenced by gender and(More)
Mollusk shell formation is a fascinating aspect of biomineralization research. Shell matrix proteins play crucial roles in the control of calcium carbonate crystallization during shell formation in the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata. Characterization of biomineralization-related genes during larval development could enhance our understanding of shell(More)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor in human. Recent studies on high-grade pediatric GBM have identified two recurrent mutations (K27M and G34R/V) in genes encoding histone H3 (H3F3A for H3.3 and HIST1H3B for H3.1). The two histone H3 mutations are mutually exclusive and give rise to tumors in different brain compartments.(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the efficiency of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) based on Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) Version 2 (v2) in detecting clinically significant prostate cancer (PCa) and to test the interobserver consistency. METHODS Based on PI-RADS v2, two radiologists reviewed the images of 372 patients who underwent prostate(More)
Bone cancer pain has a strong impact on the quality of life of patients, but is difficult to treat. Better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying bone cancer pain will likely lead to the development of more effective treatments. In the present study, we investigated whether inhibition of KCNQ/M channels contributed to the hyperexcitability of(More)
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification. Ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins are involved in DNA demethylation through iteratively oxidizing 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Here we show that human TET1 and TET2 are more active on 5mC-DNA than 5hmC/5fC-DNA(More)
The long propagation delay, limited bandwidth and high bit error rate pose great challenges in Media Access Control (MAC) protocol design for underwater acoustic networks. In this paper, we proposed an underwater MAC protocol based on Carrier Sensing Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA), which is called UW-CSMA/CA (CSMA/CA for underwater).(More)