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Sera from five traditionally managed herds grazing in the Kafue flats were tested for antibodies to bovine viral diarrhoea-mucosal disease (BVD-MD), parainfluenza 3 (PI3), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis-infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR-IPV), bovine adenovirus 3 (BAV3) and Bluetongue (BT). The sero-prevalences of the first four diseases were(More)
The eastern focus of the current outbreak of bluetongue (BT) in the Mediterranean Basin commenced in late 1998, infecting Turkey and some of the eastern islands of Greece. In the summer of 1999 it moved to continental Greece and for the first time to Bulgaria. By the late summer of 2000, BT spread progressively through Greece and to the Balkan states. The(More)
The incursion of bluetongue (BT) into Italy in August 2000 caused heavy economic losses, partly due to the disease itself, but mostly because of disruption caused to the national animal trade structure. To limit direct losses and the circulation of BT virus (BTV), the Italian Ministry of Health ordered, on 11 May 2001, the vaccination of all susceptible(More)
The affiliation, assessment and management of risks is a traditional part of veterinary medicine. In the past, veterinary services involved in this type of activity usually assessed risks qualitatively. However, since the 1990s, quantitative methods have become increasingly important. The establishment of the World Trade Organization in 1994, and the(More)
The incursion of bluetongue (BT) in Italy, in August 2000, caused heavy economic losses, partly due to the direct effect of the disease on the animals, but mostly due to indirect losses due to ruminant movement restrictions conducive to heavy losses to the cattle and sheep industry. To limit losses due to both disease and virus circulation, which was the(More)
The occurrence of bluetongue virus (BTV) in areas in which intensive animal production is practised and where there is extensive movement of animals may have a substantial impact on both animal trade and husbandry. This situation occurred in Italy after the detection of bluetongue (BT) in August 2000. In such situations, surveillance can be used to(More)
The authors discuss the responsibility of veterinary diagnostic laboratories as suppliers of analytical data for tests on animals and animal products. The guarantee of the quality of analytical data is a basic quality requirement for veterinary certification. It is therefore important for the laboratory to adopt operational quality assurance standards which(More)
In summer 2000, bluetongue (BT) infection was reported in Italy and caused a widespread epidemic involving a total of ten southern and central regions and is still in progress after three years. From the date of the first case (18 August 2000) to 14 May 2001, when the lowpoint in the first epidemic curve was reached, a total of 310,234 animals in 6,869(More)
The authors provide details of the bluetongue surveillance and the Internet-based information systems that were implemented in Italy. The systems were structured with the aim of gathering and spreading information and data to support decision-making, management of control activities and provide an early warning system. Information and data generated by the(More)
The authors studied the persistence of infection in 46 ewes experimentally infected with Brucella melitensis biovar 3 and monitored through three subsequent reproductive cycles. The entire experimental period lasted for 151 weeks. Infection of ewes and elimination of Brucella in milk, or its presence in vaginal discharges, persisted throughout the duration(More)