Donald T. Campbell

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R Discontinuity (RD) designs were first introduced by Donald L. Thistlethwaite and Donald T. Campbell (1960) as a way of estimating treatment effects in a nonexperimental setting where treatment is determined by whether an observed “assignment” variable (also referred to in the literature as the “forcing” variable or the “running” variable) exceeds a known(More)
This paper examines in how far Turchin’s concept of metasystem transition, as the evolutionary integration and control of individual systems, can be applied to the development of social systems. Principles of collective evolution are reviewed, and different types of competitive or synergetic configurations are distinguished. Similar systems tend to get(More)
Neuronal function depends crucially on the spatial segregation of specific membrane proteins, particularly the segregation associated with sites of synaptic contact. Understanding the factors governing this localization of proteins is a major goal of cellular neurobiology. A conspicuous example of synaptic specialization is the almost exclusive localization(More)
The effect of the plant alkaloid aconitine on sodium channel kinetics, ionic selectivity, and blockage by protons and tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been studied in frog skeletal muscle. Treatment with 0.25 or 0.3 mM aconitine alters sodium channels so that the threshold of activation is shifted 40-50 mV in the hyperpolarized direction. In contrast to previous(More)
A Vaseline gap potentiometric recording and voltage clamp method is developed for frog skeletal muscle fibers. The method is based on the Frankenhaeuser-Dodge voltage clamp for myelinated nerve with modifications to improve the frequency response, to compensate for external series resistance, and to compensate for the complex impedance of the(More)
The effect of elevated divalent cation concentration on the kinetics of sodium ionic and gating currents was studied in voltage-clamped frog skeletal muscle fibers. Raising the Ca concentration from 2 to 40 mM resulted in nearly identical 30-mV shifts in the time courses of activation, inactivation, tail current decay, and ON and OFF gating currents, and in(More)