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We present a technique for estimating the density of the human macular pigment noninvasively that takes advantage of the autofluorescence of lipofuscin, which is normally present in the human retinal pigment epithelium. By measuring the intensity of fluorescence at 710 nm, where macular pigment has essentially zero absorption, and stimulating the(More)
During normal vision, when subjects attempt to fix their gaze on a small stimulus feature, small fixational eye movements persist. We have recorded the impulse activity of single neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) of macaque monkeys while their fixational eye movements moved the receptive-field activating region (AR) over and around a stationary(More)
Individual variations in the spatial profile of macular pigment (MP) density were measured for 32 subjects. Peak density of MP measured with a 460-nm, 12-arcmin stimulus averaged 0.58, standard deviation (SD) = 0.26, with a range of 0.175 to 1.39. To assess the symmetry of the MP distribution, MP density was measured on the horizontal and vertical meridians(More)
Response variability of neurons limits the reliability and resolution of sensory systems. It is generally thought that response variability in the visual system increases at cortical levels, but the causes of the variability have not been identified. We have measured the response variability of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) of alert monkeys. We(More)
1. In alert macaque monkeys, multiunit activity is encountered in an alternating sequence of silent and spontaneously active zones as an electrode is lowered through the striate cortex (V1). 2. Individual neurons that are spontaneously active in the dark usually have a maintained discharge in the light. Because both types of discharge occur in the absence(More)
In natural vision, continuously changing input is generated by fast saccadic eye movements and slow drifts. We analyzed effects of fixational saccades, voluntary saccades, and drifts on the activity of macaque V1 neurons. Effects of fixational saccades and small voluntary saccades were equivalent. In the presence of a near-optimal stimulus, separate(More)
PURPOSE To develop a standardized protocol for measuring macular pigment optical density (MPOD) of experimentally naïve subjects by heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP). METHODS MPOD in eyes of 54 women, age 50 and 79 years (mean, 66), was studied. The spatial profile of MPOD was measured in the right eye, and two spatial points were also measured in(More)
PURPOSE The retinal carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) that form the macular pigment (MP) may help to prevent neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MP density in the retina could be raised by increasing dietary intake of L and Z from foods. METHODS Macular pigment was measured(More)
The nonbleaching yellow pigments of the primate fovea were studied by microspectrophotometry (MSP). Retinas fixed with glutaraldehyde/paraformaldehyde mixtures retained yellow pigments with absorbance spectra very similar to those recorded by MSP in fresh retinas. This allowed the authors to prepare retinal sections for localization of the pigments. The(More)
PURPOSE Increasing evidence indicates that the macular pigments (MP) protect the central retina and may retard macular disease. For that reason, a practical method for measuring MP that does not require elaborate optics and can be applied to diverse populations by operators with a modest amount of experience was developed and validated. METHODS A small(More)