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1 Developing new techniques to induce ␤-cells to replicate is a major goal in diabetes research. Endogenous ␤-cells replicate in response to metabolic changes, such as obesity and pregnancy, which increase insulin requirement. Mouse genetic models promise to reveal the pathways responsible for compensatory ␤-cell replication. However, no simple, short-term,(More)
The nonagenarian population by definition represents individuals who have demonstrated success in aging. We determined the status of CD8(+) T-cell senescence in nonagenarians by analyzing the expression of CD28 and Fas (CD95), and analyzing activation and activation-induced cell death (AICD). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from(More)
Carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) is a glucose-sensing transcription factor required for glucose-stimulated proliferation of pancreatic β-cells in rodents and humans. The full-length isoform (ChREBPα) has a low glucose inhibitory domain (LID) that restrains the transactivation domain when glucose catabolism is minimal. A novel isoform(More)
The cyclic AMP response element (CRE) of the rat phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene promoter is required for a complete glucocorticoid response. Proteins known to bind the PEPCK CRE include the CRE-binding protein (CREB) and members of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family. We took two different approaches to determine which of these(More)
OBJECTIVE Increased activity of the innate immune system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the dyslipidemia and insulin resistance associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we addressed the potential role of Kupffer cells (liver-specific macrophages, KCs) in these metabolic abnormalities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Rats were(More)
Research into the age-associated decline in the immune system has focused on the factors that contribute to the accumulation of senescent CD8 T cells. Less attention has been paid to the non-immune factors that may maintain the pool of naïve CD8 T cells. Here, we analyzed the status of the naïve CD8 T-cell population in healthy nonagenarians(More)
OBJECTIVE Most knowledge on human beta-cell cycle control derives from immunoblots of whole human islets, mixtures of beta-cells and non-beta-cells. We explored the presence, subcellular localization, and function of five early G1/S phase molecules-cyclins D1-3 and cdk 4 and 6-in the adult human beta-cell. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Immunocytochemistry(More)
— We describe a framework for detecting and tracking continuous " trails " in images and image sequences for autonomous robot navigation. Continuous trails are extended regions along the ground such as roads, hiking paths, rivers, and pipelines which can be navigationally useful for ground-based or aerial robots. Our approach to single-image trail(More)
Enhancing β-cell proliferation is a major goal for type 1 and type 2 diabetes research. Unraveling the network of β-cell intracellular signaling pathways that promote β-cell replication can provide the tools to address this important task. In a previous Perspectives in Diabetes article, we discussed what was known regarding several important intracellular(More)
OBJECTIVE Inducing human β-cell growth while enhancing function is a major goal in the treatment of diabetes. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) enhances rodent β-cell growth and function through the parathyroid hormone-1 receptor (PTH1R). Based on this, we hypothesized that PTH1R is expressed in human β-cells and that PTHrP has the potential to(More)