Donald Scott

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Developing new techniques to induce beta-cells to replicate is a major goal in diabetes research. Endogenous beta-cells replicate in response to metabolic changes, such as obesity and pregnancy, which increase insulin requirement. Mouse genetic models promise to reveal the pathways responsible for compensatory beta-cell replication. However, no simple,(More)
BACKGROUND Glucocorticoids are potent anti-inflammatory agents commonly used to treat inflammatory diseases. They convey signals through the intracellular glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which upon binding to ligands, associates with genomic glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) to regulate transcription of associated genes. One mechanism by which(More)
OBJECTIVE Increased activity of the innate immune system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the dyslipidemia and insulin resistance associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we addressed the potential role of Kupffer cells (liver-specific macrophages, KCs) in these metabolic abnormalities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Rats were(More)
OBJECTIVE Most knowledge on human beta-cell cycle control derives from immunoblots of whole human islets, mixtures of beta-cells and non-beta-cells. We explored the presence, subcellular localization, and function of five early G1/S phase molecules-cyclins D1-3 and cdk 4 and 6-in the adult human beta-cell. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Immunocytochemistry(More)
The treatment of diabetes mellitus represents one of the greatest medical challenges of our era. Diabetes results from a deficiency or functional impairment of insulin-producing β cells, alone or in combination with insulin resistance. It logically follows that the replacement or regeneration of β cells should reverse the progression of diabetes and,(More)
PTH is a potent regulator of osteoblast gene expression, yet the nuclear events that mediate PTH action are poorly understood. We were interested in identifying immediate early genes which may regulate PTH-altered gene expression in the osteoblast. Therefore, we examined the effects of PTH on c-fos and c-jun gene expression in a rat osteoblastic cell line(More)
Obesity-associated increases in adipose tissue (AT) CD11c(+) cells suggest that dendritic cells (DC), which are involved in the tissue recruitment and activation of macrophages, may play a role in determining AT and liver immunophenotype in obesity. This study addressed this hypothesis. With the use of flow cytometry, electron microscopy, and loss-and-gain(More)
Harnessing control of human β-cell proliferation has proven frustratingly difficult. Most G1/S control molecules, generally presumed to be nuclear proteins in the human β-cell, are in fact constrained to the cytoplasm. Here, we asked whether G1/S molecules might traffic into and out of the cytoplasmic compartment in association with activation of cell cycle(More)
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is a rate-controlling enzyme in hepatic gluconeogenesis, and it therefore plays a central role in glucose homeostasis. The rate of transcription of the PEPCK gene is increased by glucagon (via cAMP) and glucocorticoids and is inhibited by insulin. Under certain circumstances glucose also decreases PEPCK gene(More)
OBJECTIVE Inducing human β-cell growth while enhancing function is a major goal in the treatment of diabetes. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) enhances rodent β-cell growth and function through the parathyroid hormone-1 receptor (PTH1R). Based on this, we hypothesized that PTH1R is expressed in human β-cells and that PTHrP has the potential to(More)