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In previous work we demonstrated that the matrix-forming phenotype of cultured human cells from whole meniscus was enhanced by hypoxia (5% oxygen). Because the meniscus contains an inner region that is devoid of vasculature and an outer vascular region, here we investigate, by gene expression analysis, the separate responses of cells isolated from the inner(More)
Mechanical forces influence articular cartilage structure by regulating chondrocyte activity. Mechanical stimulation results in activation of an alpha5beta1 integrin dependent intracellular signal cascade involving focal adhesion kinase and protein kinase C, triggering the release of interleukin-4 from the cell. In normal HAC the response to physiological(More)
OBJECTIVE Classical neuronal signalling molecules such as substance P and glutamate have been identified in cartilage and have roles in regulation of chondrocyte function. This study looks at expression and activity of the ionotropic glutamate NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid) receptor (NMDAR) in human osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes. METHOD Chondrocytes(More)
Glucocorticoids profoundly influence immune responses, and synthetic glucocorticoids are widely used clinically for their potent antiinflammatory effects. Endogenous glucocorticoid action is modulated by the two isozymes of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD). In vivo, 11β-HSD1 catalyzes the reduction of inactive cortisone or 11-dehydrocorticosterone(More)
BACKGROUND Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis worldwide and is a major cause of pain and disability in elderly people. The health economic burden of osteoarthritis is increasing commensurate with obesity prevalence and longevity. Osteoarthritis has a strong genetic component but the success of previous genetic studies has been restricted(More)
OBJECT Increased neurotrophin activity in degenerative intervertebral discs (IVDs) is one potential cause of chronic low-back pain (LBP). The aim of the study was to assess if nerve growth factor (NGF) might alter gene expression of IVD cells and contribute to disc degeneration by enhancing expression or activity of factors that cause breakdown of IVD(More)
BACKGROUND The use of non-invasive imaging to identify ruptured or high-risk coronary atherosclerotic plaques would represent a major clinical advance for prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease. We used combined PET and CT to identify ruptured and high-risk atherosclerotic plaques using the radioactive tracers (18)F-sodium fluoride ((18)F-NaF)(More)
There is an urgent demand for long term solutions to improve osteoarthritis treatments in the ageing population. There are drugs that control the pain but none that stop the progression of the disease in a safe and efficient way. Increased intervention efforts, augmented by early diagnosis and integrated biophysical therapies are therefore needed.(More)
BACKGROUND Nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2play pivotal roles in both the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and catabolic processes in articular cartilage. These mediators are influenced by both IL-1beta and mechanical loading, and involve alterations in the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 enzymes. To identify the(More)
We have previously demonstrated that the transcription factor termed neuron restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) and the truncated splice variant, NRSF short form (sNRSF) are major modulators of preprotachykinin A (TAC1) gene expression. In this communication we addressed whether TAC1 gene expression would be effected in response to mechanical stimulation of(More)