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The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by human cerebral endothelium was studied in primary cultures of human brain microvessel endothelial cells following treatment with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Surface expression of(More)
Increased lymphocyte traffic across an altered blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a prominent and early event in inflammatory and immune-mediated CNS diseases. The factors that control the entry of lymphocytes into the brain have not been fully elucidated. In this study, primary cultures of human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMEC) were used to(More)
Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is an endothelial cell membrane glycoprotein that has been implicated in leukocyte/endothelial cell interactions in inflammation. In this study, we report the expression of VCAM-1 in primary cultures of human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMEC) under standard conditions and following bacterial(More)
Metastasis continues to be the leading cause of mortality for patients with cancer. High expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 correlates with poor prognosis in many cancers, including osteosarcoma and melanoma. CXCL12, the ligand for CXCR4, is expressed at high levels in the lung and lymph node, which are the primary sites to which these tumors(More)
The endothelial cells (EC) of the microvasculature in the brain form the anatomical basis of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the present study, the effects of agents that modify the permeability of a well-established in vitro model of the human BBB were studied. The monolayers formed by confluent human brain microvessel endothelial cell (HBMEC) cultures(More)
BACKGROUND Fractalkine is a novel chemokine that mediates both firm adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium via CX3CR1 and leukocyte transmigration out of the bloodstream. Fractalkine has recently been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of acute organ rejection. Since its expression is regulated by inflammatory agents such as LPS, IL-1, and(More)
Metastasis occurs, in part, due to tumor cell responses to chemokine secretion by ectopic organs or tissues. SDF-1 is constitutively expressed in tissues where metastases frequently develop while breast carcinoma cells express the receptor for SDF-1, CXCR4, which is correlated with increased bone metastasis and poor overall survival. We hypothesized that(More)
OBJECTIVE Stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12) is chemotactic for lympho/hematopoietic stem cells. We have previously shown that increasing peripheral blood (PB) levels of SDF-1 with adenovectors expressing human SDF-1 complementary DNA (ad-SDF-1) leads to hematopoietic stem cell mobilization as well as migration of megakaryocytes and thrombocytosis in(More)
The entry of lymphocytes into the brain is normally limited by the blood-brain barrier, however, during inflammation prominent lymphocytic infiltration occurs. In this study, we investigated the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on the adhesion of T cells to cultured human brain microvessel endothelial cells. T cell adhesion to unstimulated or tumor necrosis(More)
BACKGROUND Recent reports have linked the survival-promoting effect of CXCR4 to the up regulation of Bcl-2 protein expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS To further elucidate the relationship between Bcl-2 and CXCR4, tumorigenicity was evaluated in in vitro and in vivo models following treatment with CTCE-9908, a CXCR4 antagonist peptide. RESULTS In vitro,(More)